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Unit 6: Part A Nerds and Geeks 21st Century College English: Book 1.

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2 Unit 6: Part A Nerds and Geeks 21st Century College English: Book 1

3 Unit 6: Part A Pre-Reading Activities Pre-Reading ActivitiesPre-Reading ActivitiesPre-Reading Activities Intensive Study Intensive StudyIntensive StudyIntensive Study Exercises ExercisesExercises Assignment AssignmentAssignment

4 Pre-reading Activities Warm-up Questions Warm-up QuestionsWarm-up QuestionsWarm-up Questions Listening ListeningListening

5 A re there any negative terms in China that are used in connection with a fellow student? What values do they express? Are they used for hard working students? Pre-reading Activities

6 D o you know the terms “nerds” and “geeks”? If not, skim through the first two paragraphs to guess their meaning. Pre-reading Activities

7 Some of the top nerds and geeks Diogenes ( 412?-323 BC) I had rather be mad than delighted. Stand a little less between me and the sun.

8 Some of the top nerds and geeks Charles Babbage ( )

9 Some of the top nerds and geeks Nikola Tesla (1856–1943)

10 Some of the top nerds and geeks Alan Turing ( )

11 Some of the top nerds and geeks John von Neumann ( )

12 Intensive Study  Difficult sentences  Key words, phrases & usages  Comprehension exercises Intensive Study Intensive StudyIntensive StudyIntensive Study

13 Nerds and Geeks by Leonid Fridman 1 There is something very wrong with the system of values in a society that has only unkind terms like nerd and geek for the intellectually curious and academically serious. Text A: Nerds and Geeks

14 2 We all know what a nerd is: someone who wears thick glasses and ugly clothes; someone who knows all the answers to the chemistry or math homework but can never get a date on a Saturday night. And a geek, according to “Webster’s New World Dictionary”, is a street performer who shocks the public by biting off heads of live chickens. It is a revealing fact about our language and our culture that someone dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge is compared to such a freak. Text A: Nerds and Geeks

15 3 Even at a prestigious educational institution like Harvard, anti- intellectualism is widespread: Many students are ashamed to admit, even to their friends, how much they study. Although most students try to keep up their grades, there is but a small group of undergraduates for whom pursuing knowledge is the most important thing during their years at Harvard. Nerds are looked down upon while athletes are made heroes of. Text A: Nerds and Geeks

16 4 The same thing happens in U.S. elementary and high schools. Children who prefer to read books rather than play football, prefer to build model airplanes rather than idle away this time at parties with their classmates, become social outcasts. Because of their intelligence and refusal to conform to society’s anti-intellectual values, many are deprived of a chance to learn adequate social skills and acquire good communication tools. Text A: Nerds and Geeks

17 5 Enough is enough. 6 Nerds and geeks must stop being ashamed of what they are. Those who don’t study hard must stop teasing those who do, the bright kids with thick glasses. The anti-intellectual values that have spread throughout American society must be fought. Text A: Nerds and Geeks

18 7 There are very few countries in the world where anti- intellectualism runs as high in popular culture as it does in the U.S. In most industrialized nations, not least of all our economic rivals in East Asia, a kid who studies hard is praised and held up as an example to other students. least of allleast of all 8 In many parts of the world, university professorships are the most prestigious and materially rewarding positions. But not in America, where average professional ballplayers are much more respected and better paid than professors of the best universities. Text A: Nerds and Geeks

19 9 How can a country where typical parents are ashamed of their daughter studying mathematics instead of going dancing, or of their son reading Weber while his friends play baseball be expected to compete in the technology race with Japan or remain a leading political and cultural force in Europe? How long can America remain a world-class power if we constantly put social skills and physical strength over academic achievement and intellectual ability? Text A: Nerds and Geeks

20 10 Do we really expect to stay afloat largely by importing our scientists and intellectuals from abroad, as we have done for a major portion of this century without making an effort to also cultivate a pro-intellectual culture at home? Even if we have the political will to spend a lot more money on education than we do now, do we think we can improve our schools if we laugh at our hard-working pupils and fail to respect their impoverished teachers? Text A: Nerds and Geeks

21 11 Our fault lies not so much with our economy or with our politics as within ourselves, our values and our image of a good life. America’s culture has not adapted to the demands of our times, to the economic realities that demand a highly educated workforce and innovative intelligent leadership. liesnot so much withasadapted toliesnot so much withasadapted to Text A: Nerds and Geeks

22 12 If we are to succeed as a society in the 21st century, we had better do away with our anti-intellectualism and teach our children that a good life depends on exercising one’s mind and pursuing knowledge to the full extent of one’s abilities. do away withpursuing knowledge to the full extent of one’s abilitiesdo away withpursuing knowledge to the full extent of one’s abilities 13 Not until the words “nerd” and “geek” become terms of praise rather than insults do we stand a chance. stand a chancestand a chance Text A: Nerds and Geeks

23 …a society that has only unkind terms like nerd and geek for the intellectually curious and academically serious. Paraphrase:? those students who have genuine curiosity for academic knowledge and who regard study as a serious business.

24 dedicate to — devote (esp. oneself) to a special task or purpose e.g. Mother Teresa dedicated her whole life to helping the poor.Mother Teresa dedicated her whole life to helping the poor. Martin Luther King, Jr. dedicated his life/himself to Civil Rights Movement.Martin Luther King, Jr. dedicated his life/himself to Civil Rights Movement.dedicated —very interested in and working wholeheartedly for e.g. The medical student is dedicated to finding a cure for AIDS.The medical student is dedicated to finding a cure for AIDS. The elderly gentleman was a dedicated teacher.The elderly gentleman was a dedicated teacher.

25 pursuit n. — the act of pursuing someone or something e.g. His main interest in life is the pursuit of fame.His main interest in life is the pursuit of fame. Cf: pursue: pursue: — make continued efforts to gain e.g. He wants to pursue his studies in Britain after graduation. Translate: 他一生都在追求名和利, 但一样都没有得到. 他一生都在追求名和利, 但一样都没有得到. Key He has pursued fame and fortune all his life but has achieved neither.

26 deprive of — to take away from, prevent from using e.g. The young man was deprived of his bachelor’s degree.The young man was deprived of his bachelor’s degree. The fire deprived him of his factory.The fire deprived him of his factory. Translate:剥夺他的公民权是非法的。 Key It is illegal to deprive him of his citizen’s right. It is illegal to deprive him of his citizen’s right.

27 Enough is enough. Translate:? Key:适可而止吧。

28 Translate: I told a funny story, but nobody laughed, least of all my father. least of all — especially not (used after a negative statement) e.g. The food is barely enough for one family, least of all the whole village.The food is barely enough for one family, least of all the whole village. Typical pattern: no one/nothing …, least of all … no one/nothing …, least of all … e.g. No one seemed to pay any attention to the teacher, least of all the kids.No one seemed to pay any attention to the teacher, least of all the kids. Key我讲了个笑话,但没人笑,尤其是我父亲。

29 hold up v. — to show with respect as an example e.g. The old man often holds up his youngest daughter as an example of hard work.The old man often holds up his youngest daughter as an example of hard work. Michael Jordan is held up by many American blacks as an example to follow.Michael Jordan is held up by many American blacks as an example to follow.

30 stay afloat/keep afloat v. — (of a ship) float instead of sinking; (figuratively) free of debt or get over difficulties (figuratively) free of debt or get over difficulties Translate: Do we really expect to stay afloat largely by importing our scientists and intellectuals from abroad, …? Key 难道我们真的希望这样靠从国外引进科学家和知识分子 来生存下去吗 ? … e.g. The company managed to stay afloat during the crisis.The company managed to stay afloat during the crisis.

31 lie with v. — be the responsibility of, to rest with e.g. The report said that Dianna’s accident lies with the drunk driver. The report said that Dianna’s accident lies with the drunk driver. It lies with you to accept or reject the suggestion. It lies with you to accept or reject the suggestion.Practice Make a sentence with “lie with”. ?

32 adapt to v. — make fit (as for a specific or new use or situation), change so as to be suitable e.g. Some freshmen find it difficult to adapt to Sichuan’s hot food. Some freshmen find it difficult to adapt to Sichuan’s hot food. Don’t worry. You will soon adapt to college life.Don’t worry. You will soon adapt to college life.

33 do away with v. — put an end to, get rid of e.g. That school did away with uniforms years ago.That school did away with uniforms years ago. It’s important for government officials to do away with those outdated notions.It’s important for government officials to do away with those outdated notions.Practice Make a sentence with “do away with”. ?

34 … a good life depends on exercising one’s mind and pursuing knowledge to the full extent of one’s abilities. Paraphrasing:? making all possible efforts to gain knowledge.

35 stand a chance v. — to have the possibility of achieving something e.g. If you get straight As, you will stand a good chance of winning the scholarship.If you get straight As, you will stand a good chance of winning the scholarship. Unskilled workers will stand almost no chance of being reemployed.Unskilled workers will stand almost no chance of being reemployed. Translate:我们队有获胜的希望。 Key Our team still stands a chance of winning the game. Our team still stands a chance of winning the game.

36 not so much as With a noun or a phrase, we use this phrase to express quantity Translate: The professor is not so much a scholar as a businessman. Key这个教授与其说是学者还不如说是个商人。 More to learn More to learne.g. She works very hard not so much for money as for pleasure.She works very hard not so much for money as for pleasure. His success lies not so much with his intelligence as with his connections.His success lies not so much with his intelligence as with his connections.

37 Ex. X, p. 133 《读写教程 I 》 : Ex. X, p. 133 Exercises

38 Exercises X.Combine the following pairs of sentences, using as … as or not so much … as after the model.  There are very few countries in the world where anti- intellectualism runs so high in popular culture as it does in the U.S.  The fault lies not so much with our economy or with our policies as within ourselves, our values and images of a good life. 1.a)His teacher is able to make the point clear and convincing. b)He is also able to make the point clear and convincing.  He is able to make the point as clear and convincing as his teacher

39 Exercises X.Combine the following pairs of sentences, using as … as or not so much … as after the model.  There are very few countries in the world where anti- intellectualism runs so high in popular culture as it does in the U.S.  The fault lies not so much with our economy or with our policies as within ourselves, our values and images of a good life. 2.a)This is not a matter of putting more money into education. b)This is a matter of changing our anti-intellectualism values.  This is not so much a matter of putting more money into education as a matter of changing our anti-intellectual values.

40 Exercises X.Combine the following pairs of sentences, using as … as or not so much … as after the model.  There are very few countries in the world where anti- intellectualism runs so high in popular culture as it does in the U.S.  The fault lies not so much with our economy or with our policies as within ourselves, our values and images of a good life. 3.a)They think that academic achievement is important to a student. b)They also think that social skills are important to a student.  They think that social skills are as important as academic achievement to a student.

41 Exercises X.Combine the following pairs of sentences, using as … as or not so much … as after the model.  There are very few countries in the world where anti- intellectualism runs so high in popular culture as it does in the U.S.  The fault lies not so much with our economy or with our policies as within ourselves, our values and images of a good life. 4.a)The purpose of this article is not to answer thequestion. b)The purpose of this article is to discuss the question.  The purpose of this article is not so much to answer the question as to discuss the question.

42 Exercises X.Combine the following pairs of sentences, using as … as or not so much … as after the model.  There are very few countries in the world where anti- intellectualism runs so high in popular culture as it does in the U.S.  The fault lies not so much with our economy or with our policies as within ourselves, our values and images of a good life. 5.a)Professors are respected and well paid in this country. b)Professional ballplayers are also respected and well paid in this country  Professional ballplayers are as respected and well paid as professors in this country.

43 Text-related information Webster’s New World Dictionary Webster’s New World Dictionary (College Edition) is a well-known dictionary of the American language intended for college students. Its definition of “geek” is somewhat out-of-date as this word is currently used as a slang term referring to anyone lacking social grace or popularity.

44 Harvard Harvard University ( 哈佛大学 ) is the oldest American university, founded in 1636 at Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is generally considered the most prestigious university in the U.S., perhaps analogous to Beijing University’s status in China. The main university campus lies along the Charles River a few miles west of Boston. Text-related information

45 Max Weber, Weber was a German sociologist and political economist, one of the founders of sociology. His ideas, which spanned subjects from economic history to the sociology of music, continue to be extremely influential. For a young person in the U.S. to be reading Weber would be a marker of a strong intellect. Text-related information

46 Exercises ComprehensionComprehensionComprehension VocabularyVocabularyVocabulary Listening & DiscussionListening & DiscussionListening & DiscussionListening & Discussion

47 Comprehension Ex. II, p. 130 《读写教程 I 》 : Ex. II, p. 130

48 1.What do the words “nerd” and “geek” mean in American slang? Key:A “nerd” is someone who does well in school, but is socially unpopular. “Geek” literally means a street performer who bites the heads off from chickens. Informally, it is often used by teenagers to describe a person who is “uncool” or not popular. Relevant to: Para. 2 Comprehension

49 2.According to the author, what does it show about American society that these words are used to describe the hardest-working, most accomplished student? Key:It shows that such students, and academic skills in general, are not valued or respected. Comprehension

50 3.What is meant by “Enough is enough” in paragraph 5? Key:This phrase means that the author feels it is now time to reverse the trend and to start respecting intelligent, hardworking students. Comprehension

51 4.What does the author see as the cause of anti- intellectualism in the U.S.? Key:Because good students are not respected in school as children, they do not have any opportunity to develop the social skills that would make them popular as adults. Relevant to: Para. 4 Because of their intelligence and refusal to conform to society’s anti-intellectual values, many are deprived of a chance to learn adequate social skills and acquire good communication tools. Comprehension

52 5.How does he suggest it should be fought? Key:He suggests that poor students must stop teasing good students. Comprehension

53 6.What comparison does the author make between the U.S. and other industrialized countries in terms of how professors and serious students are treated? Key:He says that they are treated much better in other countries than in the U.S.. In East Asia, for example, professors are well-paid and respected, and top students are praised as good examples. Comprehension

54 7.What result does the author foresee of not respecting and valuing intellectuals? Key:He forecasts that it will lead to a downturn in the U.S. economy and to a lowering of America’s place in the world. Relevant to: Para. 9 Comprehension

55 8.How do the introduction and the conclusion of the text work together to support each other? Key:In the introduction, the way in which “nerd” and “geek” are used to illustrate the values which the author is arguing against. In the conclusion, he points out that when these words gain a positive meaning, it will indicate that the battle has been won. Comprehension

56 Vocabulary VocabularyVocabulary  Ex. IV Ex. IV Ex. IV  Ex. V Ex. V Ex. V

57 Ex. IV, p. 130 《读写教程 I 》 : Ex. IV, p. 130 Vocabulary

58 IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. prestigious import pursue acquire average prefer shock pursuit compete bite extent admit 1.People are really _______ to learn that the intellectually curious and hard-working are called names, such as nerds and geeks, in some parts of the U.S. nerds and geeks, in some parts of the U.S.  shocked 2.When questioned, the children ___________ that their homework remained untouched, as they had idled away 2.When questioned, the children ___________ that their homework remained untouched, as they had idled away their time doing nothing.  admitted Vocabulary

59 3.He has made up his mind to _______ his studies abroad.  pursue 4.It’s a pleasant surprise to me that my daughter should ______ to read English at home rather than go shopping with her mother this evening. with her mother this evening.  prefer IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. prestigious import pursue acquire average prefer shock pursuit compete bite extent admit Vocabulary

60 5.He is so ___________ that he is not only interested in the whats, whys and hows, but also knows where to find the answers to all of these questions.  intelligent 6.If you need further qualifications ( 条件 ) for the job, check out how and where you can ___________ them.  acquire IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. prestigious import pursue acquire average prefer shock pursuit compete bite extent admit Vocabulary

61 8.He is keen to ____________ relations with this company because of its good reputation.  cultivate  average 7.His intelligence is not even up to the __________ level; therefore, his success is largely due to his hard work. IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. prestigious import pursue acquire average prefer shock pursuit compete bite extent admit Vocabulary

62 IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. prestigious import pursue acquire average prefer shock pursuit compete bite extent admit 9.Spicy ( 辛辣的 ) food is ____________ of Sichuan cooking.  typical 10.We have never seen anyone with such a strong dedication to the ______________ of success.  pursuit Vocabulary

63 11.This wine is ___________ from France, and it is rather expensive. 12.The guard dog has been trained to ___________ without barking.  imported  bite IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. prestigious import pursue acquire average prefer shock pursuit compete bite extent admit Vocabulary

64 IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. prestigious import pursue acquire average prefer shock pursuit compete bite extent admit 13.The American economy, and its ability to __________ abroad, was slowing down according to the report.  compete 14.Students’ attention will not be drawn to their studies if we ____________ put social skills and physical strength over academic achievement and intellectual ability.  constantly Vocabulary

65 IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. prestigious import pursue acquire average prefer shock pursuit compete bite extent admit 15. How can we continue to produce first-class engineers if the most ______________ universities are unable to offer decent salaries to attract the best professors? 16.In my opinion, high-IQ students are usually intellectually curious and very good at making use of their time to the fullest ____________.  prestigious  extent Vocabulary

66 Ex. V, p. 131 《读写教程 I 》 : Ex. V, p. 131 Vocabulary

67 V.Replace the underlined words in the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning. 1.That famous professor has devoted her entire life to the improvement of our educational system  dedicated, to 2.The teacher told Bob that if he started working hard right now, he still had hope of passing the final exam.  stood a chance Vocabulary

68 3.In this university high-achieving students are taken as examples for other students to follow.  held up as V.Replace the underlined words in the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning. 4.No one from the community, especially the community leaders, supported his argument that the public should be held responsible the current problems.  least of all Vocabulary

69 5.If the essay does not meet university requirements, then the student cannot receive his or her degree. 6.The poet says his love is like a red, red rose that’s newly sprung in June.  conform to  compares, to V.Replace the underlined words in the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning. Vocabulary

70 7.In my opinion, professional boxing should be abolished. 8.In times of war, people are not allowed the freedom to go out at night.  done away with  deprived of V.Replace the underlined words in the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning. Vocabulary

71 9.Something must be done about the fact that students working hard at their studies feel ashamed and are considered inferior by others.  looked down upon V.Replace the underlined words in the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning. 10.You will feel good when you get to know the culture in this country and become used to the lifestyle here.  adapt to Vocabulary

72 11.I always prefer starting early, rather than leaving everything to the last minute. 12.As they were unable to make the rent payments, their landlord took back the house, leaving the couple and their 7-year-old son homeless. 12.As they were unable to make the rent payments, their landlord took back the house, leaving the couple and their 7-year-old son homeless.  instead of  keep up V.Replace the underlined words in the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning. Vocabulary

73 Listening Practice Part 3.3, p. 76 《听说教程 I 》 : Part 3.3, p. 76

74 Directions:Listen to the following text-related conversation carefully and find answers to the questions that follow it. Answer Questions Answer Questions Answer Questions Answer Questions Listening Practice

75 Answer Questions 1.Who is the subject of the old man’s speech? His opposition to anti-intellectual values. 2.What does Ed think of the old man? He thinks he’s a nerd. Listening Practice

76 Answer Questions 3.What is Juliet’s point when she asks if Ed has ever asked his teachers how much they get paid? That the low salaries that teachers get paid reflect society’s anti-intellectual vales. 4. Does Ed see anything wrong with making athletes into heroes? No. Listening Practice

77 5.Does Ed agree that intellectuals are not respected? No. 6.Why does Ed start laughing? Because the idea of showing people thinking and reading books on TV seems funny to him. Answer Questions Listening Practice

78 Assignment Revision of Text A: VocabularyVocabulary Ex. IV, p. 130; Ex. V, p. 131 Word BuildingWord Building Ex. XI, p. 134; Ex. XII, p. 134


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