Presentation on theme: "FDR & The New Deal Lack of Confidence in Banks –B–B–B–Banks failed due to poor investments and panic by the public Low Farm Prices –F–F–F–Farmers."— Presentation transcript:
FDR & The New Deal Lack of Confidence in Banks –B–B–B–Banks failed due to poor investments and panic by the public Low Farm Prices –F–F–F–Farmers overproduced crops Massive Unemployment –F–F–F–Factory closings, poor economy caused 25% unemployment rate Bank holiday –c–closing of the banks to stop the panic –F–FDIC (insured deposits) AAA –P–Paid farmers NOT to grow products PWA, CCC, WPA –G–Government public works projects created jobs & paychecks
Poverty in the Tennessee River Valley –V–V–V–Valley was hit hardest, massive poverty Mortgage Foreclosures –F–F–F–Farms & homes were foreclosed on Health Care Problems –L–L–L–Little medical insurance –P–P–P–Poor & elderly received little health care TVA –B–Built dams to create electric power –S–Set up schools & health care facilities HOLC –L–Loaned money at low interest to help people make mortgage payments SSA, FERA –S–Social Security gave pensions to elderly, TVA set up healthcare systems, many hospitals were built
Lack of Confidence in the Stock Market –A–A–A–After the crash of 1929, people feared investing in the stock market –B–B–B–Business lost the capital needed to expand –W–W–W–Without economic expansion, the economy continued to suffer –U–U–U–Unemployment remained high 25% SEC –S–Security & Exchange Commission –S–Supervised the stock market –E–Eliminated dishonest practices –L–Limited “margin” buying
How did FDR’s Response to the Depression Differ from Herbert Hoover’s? Herbert Hoover –C–C–C–Created limited public works programs –R–R–R–Relied on charities to provide help for poor, elderly, sick –B–B–B–Business would recover on its own (business cycle) –O–O–O–Ordered military to clear the BONUS ARMY (WWI Vets) out of their Washington DC camps Franklin D. Roosevelt –C–C–C–Created MASSIVE public works programs –P–P–P–Provided direct government aid to poor, elderly, sick –I–I–I–Increased government regulation of business, assistance to business & farmers –G–G–G–Greatly increased government involvement in the economy, people’s lives
Do Now! How did FDR’s New Deal help Americans through the Depression? –U–Under the New Deal, the government directly provided: Public works jobs Money and healthcare to the needy and sick Support to banks and stock market regulation Help for farmers Help to homeowners
From the beginning a number of Americans opposed the New Deal. Many of these critics wanted the government to do more. Others wanted it to do less. Who were the New Deal’s political opponents? Senator Huey Long (D) FDR did not do enough to help the poor The Liberty League (a group of Republicans) Believed that the New Deal created too much interference in peoples lives
Political Opposition to the New Deal Huey Long “Share the Wealth” –T–T–T–The poor needed more help –H–H–H–Heavy taxes on the rich –W–W–W–Would use tax money to give every family a house, a car, and a decent income –T–T–T–The poor found this VERY appealing The Liberty League –F–FDR went too far –M–Made the government too big and intruded too much in peoples lives –F–Feared the government would take away basic American freedoms
Supreme Court Opposition to the New Deal The Supreme Court ruled that many parts of the New Deal were unconstitutional –O–O–O–Overturned nine New Deal laws stating that the President had overstepped his authority –T–T–T–The Court believed that FDR had upset the balance of power among the 3 branches of government. FDR believed that the Supreme Court hurt his ability to lead the nation
FDR’s Plan to Expand the Court FDR proposed raising the number of Supreme Court justices from 9 to 15 Critics accused FDR of trying to “pack” the court and increase presidential power FDR’s “court packing” plan was not passed Were FDR’s critics correct? Would packing the court increase presidential power too much?
Conclusion: Why did some Americans object to the New Deal? Some felt the poor needed more help at the expense of the rich Others believed government was too big, too intrusive, and spending too much money Supreme Court felt that the President overstepped his authority
How Did Drought, and Dust Storms Compound Depression Era Problems for Farmers?
Where was the Dust Bowl?
What caused the Dust Bowl disaster? Severe drought (no rain) Overgrazing by cattle Over plowing by farmers High winds –A–A–A–All these conditions destroyed the grasses that held the soil in place –T–T–T–These storms were called “Black Blizzards” –P–P–P–Parts of the Great Plains became known as the Dust Bowl
Scenes from the Dust Bowl Dust Storm over Oklahoma
Scenes from the Dust Bowl Dust Storm over Texas
Scenes from the Dust Bowl Dust Storm over Kansas
Who did the drought hit the hardest? Migrant workers –P–P–P–Poor farmers from Oklahoma and Arkansas headed west to escape the Dust Bowl –M–M–M–Many moved to the west coast to find jobs on farms –T–T–T–They were not welcomed by locals –L–L–L–Locals feared that the migrants would take local jobs –M–M–M–Migrant workers lived in poor conditions (tents, no water or electricity)
Conclusion: How did drought, and dust storms compound depression era problems for farmers? Farmers were already struggling through the economic depression (due to overproduction of crops) Lack of rain and the overuse of land made farmers problems worse Conditions forced farmers of the Great Plains to migrate west where they were unwelcome and faced an even harder life Many were left displaced/homeless as farm land became useless
How do Americans “escape” from reality today? Listen to music Go to the movies Play sports/video games Daydream Get in car and drive Go for a long walk
Method of Escape “The Movies”
Why were “the movies” a good way to “escape”? Provided a means of optimism & an opportunity to forget worries During the 1930’s the first color movies came out & inspired imagination Movies helped people to escape from their dreary lives & cheer up
How did “Radio” help people to “escape” ? Comedy, Music, Dramas helped people to forget their troubles Continuing Dramas told stories over weeks or months were sponsored by “Soap Companies” became known as “Soap Operas”
Conclusion: Why were movies and radio important to people during the depression? –P–P–P–Provided escape from the economic and psychological hard times of the Great Depression