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Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal The Great Depression began in 1929 after the stock market crashed. Businesses closed, unemployment rose, and the economy.

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Presentation on theme: "Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal The Great Depression began in 1929 after the stock market crashed. Businesses closed, unemployment rose, and the economy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal The Great Depression began in 1929 after the stock market crashed. Businesses closed, unemployment rose, and the economy suffered greatly. -The Great Depression began in 1929 after the stock market crashed. Businesses closed, unemployment rose, and the economy suffered greatly.

2 Hoover’s Policies Failed President Hoover was viewed as not having done enough to slow down the effects of the Great Depression. President Hoover was viewed as not having done enough to slow down the effects of the Great Depression.

3 The Election of 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) The Democrats nominated NY Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) for President New Dealwas for the federal government to play a larger role in ending the Depression His plan, called the New Deal, was for the federal government to play a larger role in ending the Depression This was a contrast to Hoover’s laissez-faire policies

4 The Election of 1932 FDR won the election in a landslide FDR won the election in a landslide FDR was now responsible for ending the Great Depression FDR was now responsible for ending the Great Depression Roosevelt was elected President 4 times, and served from Roosevelt was elected President 4 times, and served from In the 1950s, the 22 nd amendment was ratified, and limited presidents to two terms In the 1950s, the 22 nd amendment was ratified, and limited presidents to two terms Quotes from FDR’s Inaugural Address Quotes from FDR’s Inaugural Address the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” “So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” Our greatest primary task is to put people to work It can be accomplished in part by direct recruiting by the Government itself…” “Our greatest primary task is to put people to work. This is no unsolvable problem if we face it wisely and courageously. It can be accomplished in part by direct recruiting by the Government itself…” broad Executive power “I shall ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis—broad Executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe.”

5 The New Deal Relief, Recovery, and Reform FDR wanted to focus on what was called the 3 R’s: Relief, Recovery, and Reform His overall goal was to save the capitalist economic system His overall goal was to save the capitalist economic system In his first 100 days in office, many reforms were made. first task was to fix the banking system FDR’s first task was to fix the banking system. People did not have confidence in banks. He temporarily closed all banks (a “bank holiday”), and found that most banks had sufficient amounts of money to continue operating. This led to millions of Americans putting money back in the banks, and the banking crisis stabilized. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Congress also created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). The FDIC guaranteed a certain amount of money people put into the banks ($2,500 initally, raised to $5,000 soon after, $250,000 today). "deposits are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government." "deposits are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government."

6 The New Deal New Deal Reform New Deal Reform 1. FDIC (1933) 1. FDIC (1933) 2. Securities Exchange Act (1934)—created Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), which could regulate the practices of the stock market 2. Securities Exchange Act (1934)—created Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), which could regulate the practices of the stock market 3. Social Security Act (1935)- -Provides for old age insurance, unemployment insurance, also helped the infirm, elderly, and dependent children. Funds were provided though a tax on employers and employees. 3. Social Security Act (1935)- -Provides for old age insurance, unemployment insurance, also helped the infirm, elderly, and dependent children. Funds were provided though a tax on employers and employees. New Deal Relief New Deal Relief 1. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), (1933): employed young men to perform unskilled work in rural areas. Paid $30/month, $25 sent to parents. 2.5 million worked for the CCC. 1. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), (1933): employed young men to perform unskilled work in rural areas. Paid $30/month, $25 sent to parents. 2.5 million worked for the CCC.

7 The New Deal Public Works Administration(PWA)-1933 Public Works Administration(PWA)-1933 It concentrated on the construction of large-scale public works, with the goal of providing employment, and contributing to a revival of American industry. It concentrated on the construction of large-scale public works, with the goal of providing employment, and contributing to a revival of American industry. Built roads, schools, dams, bridges, tunnels, and other industrial projects. Built roads, schools, dams, bridges, tunnels, and other industrial projects. The PWA gave contracts to private firms who did all the hiring. The PWA gave contracts to private firms who did all the hiring. Works Progress Administration (WPA) Another government sponsored work program. It ran from and included not only construction jobs and public works, but also offered work to musicians, writers, and artists. Works Progress Administration (WPA) Another government sponsored work program. It ran from and included not only construction jobs and public works, but also offered work to musicians, writers, and artists.

8 The New Deal New Deal Recovery New Deal Recovery Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)—1933—built dams, provided jobs, inexpensive electricity, and protection from floods throughout large parts of the south. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)—1933—built dams, provided jobs, inexpensive electricity, and protection from floods throughout large parts of the south. Many of the poor rural regions of the south did not have electricity until the TVA came along in the 1930s. Many of the poor rural regions of the south did not have electricity until the TVA came along in the 1930s.

9 The New Deal Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)—1933--restricted agricultural production by paying farmers not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus to raise the value of crops. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)—1933--restricted agricultural production by paying farmers not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus to raise the value of crops. This was done in response to the low crop prices caused by overproduction in the 1920s. This was done in response to the low crop prices caused by overproduction in the 1920s. National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)—1935— oversees the relations between labor and owners. Guaranteed the right of workers to join a union, and to have collective bargaining. The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) was created to enforce the law. National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)—1935— oversees the relations between labor and owners. Guaranteed the right of workers to join a union, and to have collective bargaining. The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) was created to enforce the law.

10 Critics of the New Deal The New Deal went too far The New Deal went too far Conservatives said the New Deal allowed for too much government interference Conservatives said the New Deal allowed for too much government interference Some called the New Deal socialist or communist Some called the New Deal socialist or communist In 1935, the Supreme Court declared the AAA unconstitutional In 1935, the Supreme Court declared the AAA unconstitutional Schecter Poultry Corp. v. United States (1935) declared NIRA unconstitutional (NIRA set wages and prices for industry) Schecter Poultry Corp. v. United States (1935) declared NIRA unconstitutional (NIRA set wages and prices for industry) Critics also were against deficit spending during the New Deal Critics also were against deficit spending during the New Deal The New Deal did not go far enough The New Deal did not go far enough Liberal critics said the government needed to do more to lift the country out of the Depression Liberal critics said the government needed to do more to lift the country out of the Depression Senator Huey Long of Louisiana was FDR’s main critic. He wanted to tax the rich, limit personal fortunes, and redistribute wealth so all families could have a decent standard of living (some criticized Long’s plan for being socialist) Senator Huey Long of Louisiana was FDR’s main critic. He wanted to tax the rich, limit personal fortunes, and redistribute wealth so all families could have a decent standard of living (some criticized Long’s plan for being socialist)

11 The Court-packing Plan After several New Deal programs were declared unconstitutional, FDR came up with a plan so the Supreme Court could not undo the New Deal any further. After several New Deal programs were declared unconstitutional, FDR came up with a plan so the Supreme Court could not undo the New Deal any further. He wanted to replace the older, more conservative justices that opposed the New Deal He wanted to replace the older, more conservative justices that opposed the New Deal He proposed that justices over 70 be forced to retire, or that he be allowed to add a justice to the Court for every justice over 70 years old He proposed that justices over 70 be forced to retire, or that he be allowed to add a justice to the Court for every justice over 70 years old The public was against FDR’s plan because it seemed like he wanted too much power The public was against FDR’s plan because it seemed like he wanted too much power The court-packing scheme was defeated by Congress The court-packing scheme was defeated by Congress

12 The Dust Bowl In the Great Plains during the 1930s, the Dust Bowl was caused by drought and overuse of the land. In the Great Plains during the 1930s, the Dust Bowl was caused by drought and overuse of the land. Huge dust storms killed crops, livestock, and people. Huge dust storms killed crops, livestock, and people. Many farmers were forced to move further west Many farmers were forced to move further west New Deal programs planted millions of trees in the Midwest to hold the soil in place, and FDR encouraged farming methods that conserved soil New Deal programs planted millions of trees in the Midwest to hold the soil in place, and FDR encouraged farming methods that conserved soil

13 Impact of the New Deal Did the New Deal help the US out of the Depression? Did the New Deal help the US out of the Depression? Recovery was slow, but unemployment dropped by WWII. 25% in 1932 (year before New Deal), and 10% by 1941 (beginning of U.S. involvement in WWII) Recovery was slow, but unemployment dropped by WWII. 25% in 1932 (year before New Deal), and 10% by 1941 (beginning of U.S. involvement in WWII) The New Deal succeeded in slowing the Depression, and avoiding complete economic collapse The New Deal succeeded in slowing the Depression, and avoiding complete economic collapse The federal government became stronger as a result of the New Deal The federal government became stronger as a result of the New Deal Politically, the New Deal led to the dominance of the Democratic Party until the late 1960s (the Republican Party had dominated American politics from the Civil War through the 1920s). Politically, the New Deal led to the dominance of the Democratic Party until the late 1960s (the Republican Party had dominated American politics from the Civil War through the 1920s). World War II ultimately brought economic prosperity back to America World War II ultimately brought economic prosperity back to America


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