How is it determined to be the hardest substance? Key idea one states, “through systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions. This question relates to standard six key idea one because people use a hardness scale when determining the hardness of a mineral. One example of this could be having the children research the system in which hardness is tested, and actually test some minerals themselves. Standard 6: Interconnectedness.
“What is the substance made up of?” Key idea three states, “matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.” This question relates to standard four key idea three because it is questioning what a substance is made up of, which in turn will allow children to observe different properties and characteristics. For example, the children can observe and describe the properties of a diamond in order to recognize that all matter has properties that can be observed. Standard 4: The Physical Setting.
What Is A Diamond Made Up Of?? A diamond is made entirely of carbon (just like the graphite in a pencil). But, while graphite is soft, the carbon atoms in a diamond form in such a way as to create the hardest known natural substance!
How Is That Determined?? In 1822, Friedrich Moh came up with a method of comparing hardness that is known today as the Moh’s scale. The softest mineral is rated at a 1, and the hardest mineral, which is a diamond is a 10. A simple way to determine the hardness of something is to use these common objects. Pencil LeadHardness of 1 Finger nailHardness of 2.5 Copper pennyHardness of 3.5 Window GlassHardness of 5.5 Steel FileHardness of 6.5
Where Are They Found? Roughly 49% of diamond originate from central and southern Africa. They are mined from kimberlite and lamproite volcanic pipes that bring the diamond crystals to the surface from deep in the Earth where the high pressure and heat allows their formation. Lamproite and kimberlite are the volcanic rocks that sometimes contain diamonds.
Sources Of Information NY Learns, SUNY Buffalo http://www.nylearns.org/standards/browsestandards.asp http://www.nylearns.org/standards/browsestandards.asp Wikipedia, Carbon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon Wikipedia, Diamond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond Chard, Moh’s Hardness Scale http://www.24carat.co.uk/hardnessmohsscaleframe.html http://www.24carat.co.uk/hardnessmohsscaleframe.html EGL USA, The worlds most trusted name in Gemology. http://www.eglusa.com/faqs.html#1 http://www.eglusa.com/faqs.html#1