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Section 1- Properties of Minerals

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1 Section 1- Properties of Minerals
Chapter 3- Minerals Section 1- Properties of Minerals

2 What is a Mineral? Mineral= a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition 5 Characteristics of Mineral Naturally occurring- found in the natural world - Not natural (plastic, steel, brick, concrete) 2. Inorganic= not formed from a living thing or once living thing

3 What is a Mineral? 5 Characteristics cont… 3. Solid 4. Crystal Structure - Crystal= the repeating pattern of a mineral’s particles 5. Definite chemical composition (make-up)= contain certain elements in a definite proportions

4 Identifying Minerals? 5 Tests for Identifying Minerals 1. Color 2. Streak color - Streak= the color of a mineral’s powder * Done by rubbing the mineral across a tile

5 Identifying Minerals? 5 Tests for Identifying Minerals cont. 3. Luster= measure of light reflected from a mineral’s surface - (Can be described as glassy, pearly, waxy, silky, metallic) 4. Density= mass (weight) of an object in a given space Density =

6 Identifying Minerals? 5. Hardness - Mohs hardness scale= a scale which ranks 10 minerals from softest to hardest * Done by scratching the mineral with objects of varying hardness (Example: fingernail=2)

7 Minerals can also be identified by how they break apart.
Identifying Minerals? Minerals can also be identified by how they break apart. 2 Ways Minerals Break 1. Cleavage= when a mineral splits along a flat surface 2. Fracture= when a mineral breaks apart in an irregular way Cleavage Fracture

8 Section 2- How Minerals Form

9 2 Methods of crystallization 1. Molten material
How Minerals Form? Crystals form by crystallization= a process by which atoms are arranged to form a crystal structure 2 Methods of crystallization 1. Molten material 2. Materials dissolved in water Cave of Crystals in Mexico

10 Minerals from Magma and Lava
Magma= molten material from inside the earth that hardens to form a rock Lava= magma that reaches the surface * When magma and lava cool they form crystals Rate of cooling determines crystal size Slow cooling large crystals (magma) Quick cooling small crystals (lava)

11 Minerals from Solutions
Solution= mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another For example: Kool-aid in water Geode= a rounded hollowed out rock lined with mineral crystals Formed when water enters rock through a crack and elements begin to crystallize on rock walls Geode

12 Minerals from Solutions
Minerals can also be formed from… - Evaporation of a solution leaving behind the minerals Hot water solutions As hot water heated by magma begins to cool the elements in the water can escape and crystallize in veins= a narrow channel of mineral that is different from the surrounding rock Gypsum Rose Gold Vein

13 Section 3- Using Mineral Resources

14 The Uses of Minerals Gemstone= a hard, colorful mineral that has a brilliant or glassy luster (Ruby, Opal, Sapphire, diamond…) Jewelry, decoration, mechanical parts for grinding and polishing Metals (Aluminum, iron, copper, silver) Very ductile and malleable Building frames, cars, money, jewelry

15 The Uses of Minerals Other Uses (In foods, medicines, fertilizers and building materials) Talc  talcum powder Quartz glass, electronic parts, and watches Gypsum  wallboard, cement, and stucco

16 Rough Beginnings Minerals are obtained in the form of an ore= a rock that contains a metal or other useful mineral that can be mined and sold as a profit

17 Making Metals from Minerals
First they must be undergo… - Prospecting- find the mineral - Mining- dig up the mineral - Smelting- melting down and removal of unwanted material from the wanted mineral

18 Making Metals from Minerals
Further Processing - Alloy= a solid mixture of a metal and one or more elements Ex: iron + carbon= steel *Why an alloy? - Can give the metal better qualities (stronger, rust resistant, shinier) Ex: Steel + manganese makes stronger steel

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