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Properties of Minerals S E C T I O N 4 - 1
Objectives What are the characteristics of a mineral? How are minerals identified?
A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.
For a substance to be considered a mineral, it must have all five of these characteristics.
Geologists have identified more than 3,000 different minerals. Of these, only about 100 are common.
About 20 minerals make up most of the rocks of Earth’s crust. These minerals are known as rock forming minerals.
1 - Natural To be classified as a mineral, a substance must occur naturally in Earth’s crust.
2 - Inorganic A mineral must also be inorganic. This means that the mineral cannot arise from materials that were once part of a living thing.
3 - Solid A mineral is always a solid, with a definite volume and shape.
4 - crystal The particles of a mineral line up in a pattern that repeats over and over again.
The repeating pattern of a mineral’s particles forms a solid called a crystal. All minerals have a characteristic crystal structure.
5 – definite chemical composition A mineral has a definite chemical composition— it always contains certain elements in definite amounts.
An element is a substance composed of a single kind of atom.
The vast majority of minerals are compounds. In a compound, two or more elements are combined so that the elements no longer have distinct properties.
Some elements occur in nature in a pure form. These, such as silver and gold, are considered to be minerals.
Each mineral has its own specific properties that can be used to identify it.
The Mohs hardness scale ranks ten minerals from softest to hardest.
The color of a mineral can be used to identify minerals that always have their own characteristic color.
The streak of a mineral is the color of its powder. Even though the color of a mineral may vary, its streak does not.
Another simple test is a mineral’s luster, the term used to describe how a mineral reflects light from its surface.
Each mineral has a characteristic density. No matter what the size of a mineral sample, the density of that mineral always remains the same.
The crystals of each mineral grow to form that mineral’s particular crystal shape. Geologists classify these shapes into six groups according to the number and angle of the faces.
The way a mineral breaks apart can help to identify it. A mineral that splits easily along flat surfaces has the property called cleavage.
Most minerals do not split apart evenly. Instead they have a property called fracture. Fracture describes how a mineral looks when it breaks apart.
Some minerals can be identified by special properties. Minerals that glow under ultraviolet light have a property known as fluorescence.
Magnetism occurs naturally in a few minerals, such as magnetite.
Uraninite and a few other minerals are radioactive.
Calcite gives off carbon dioxide when a drop of vinegar is placed on it.
A few minerals, such as quartz, have electrical properties.
Minerals. What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.
What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite.
So what is a mineral? What are the characteristics of all minerals?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Minerals of Earth’s Crust Chapter 5 Table of Contents Section 1 What.
EARTH SCIENCE Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens
Objectives Define a mineral. What is a mineral? Describe how minerals form. Identify the most common elements in Earths crust. –mineral –crystal –magma.
Chapter: Rocks and Minerals Table of Contents Section 3: Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock CycleMetamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle Section 1: MineralsEarths.
DO NOW List at least 10 items that you came in contact with before school today that contained a mineral.
Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals (part II). Minerals: the building blocks of rocks Definition of a Mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid characteristic.
Target 1: I can effectively communicate the 4 components needed for a substance to be classified as a mineral. What is a mineral? It is a naturally occurring,
Minerals Chapter 3. What is a Mineral? Mineral Characteristics Naturally occurring Inorganic Solid Definite chemical composition Either elements or compounds.
Minerals 1.Naturally occurring 2.Inorganic 3.Solid - crystalline (orderly) structure. -- Can be elements or compounds.
1.The ten most common minerals make up ______ % of the Earths crust What do the properties of a mineral result from? Chemical Composition 3. Define.
Crystals. Geologists Found in minerals and have a regular geometric shape.
Crystals. Found in minerals and have a regular geometric shape.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow.
Warm Up 9/27 1)The most common mineral group in Earth’s crust is the ____________. a. Carbonatesc. Oxides b. Silicatesd. Sulfides 2)What are the building.
S olid S olid Cannot be a liquid or a gas Cannot be a liquid or a gas N aturally Occurring N aturally Occurring Found in nature, not man-made Found in.
Minerals Write down what you know about minerals. What things in this room are made of minerals?
Earth Processes: Part 1: Lithosphere (land) The student will be able to describe types of rocks and the processes involved in the rock cycle. The student.
Chapter 4 - Minerals. Mineral - definition Naturally Naturally occurring Inorganic Inorganic Solid Solid Specific Specific chemical composition Definite.
A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which the basic identity of each substance is not changed. Unlike pure substances, mixtures do.
Mineral Identification Lab Purpose of Lab: to observe the various physical properties of common rock forming minerals to utilize the combination of physical.
Classifying Matter Up to this point, we have only been modeling matter with simple particles The simplest units of substances have been represented by.
ARE ALL ROCKS MINERALS?. HOW DOES MATTER CHANGE? LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER: NO MATTER CAN BE CREATED OR DESTROYED SOLIDLIQUID:MELTING LIQUID GAS:
Objectives Describe the particles within atoms and the structure of atoms. What are elements? Relate the energy levels of atoms to the chemical properties.
MINERALS ARE MADE UP OF SINGLE ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS ELEMENTS A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN TO ANY SIMPLER SUBSTANCE EIGHT MOST COMMON ELEMENTS.
Minerals Atoms Ions Elements and Compounds Elements in the Earths Crust Minerals.
What is a Mineral. What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition and a definite crystalline.
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