ResourcesBasic FormattingBasic Stylistic The American Psychological Association (APA)
Basic Formatting in APA General format ◦ Use standard paper (8.5” x 11”) ◦ Use 1” margins for all sides (2.54 cm) ◦ Use 12 pt. Times New Roman ◦ Double space ◦ One space after commas, colons, and semicolons ◦ Two spaces after punctuation ◦ Flush left alignment ◦ Paragraph indentation is 5-7 spaces ◦ Page number in top right corner
Abstract: Ask your instructor if you need an abstract When in doubt, include the abstract A single paragraph Between 150 and 250 words Abbreviation and acronyms in your paper should be defined here
Headings : (cited from OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab) APA headings and seritations (n.d.). In Purdue Online Writing Lab. Retrieved from
Example: Development of Reasoning in Early Childhood Title Reasoning in Young Children 1st level Inductive Reasoning 2nd level Definition of inductive reasoning. 3rd level Existing notion of inductive reasoning. 4th level Inductive reasoning by Piaget. 5th level Recent understanding of inductive reasoning. 4th level Deductive Reasoning Definition of deductive reasoning. Existing notion of deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning by Piaget. Recent understanding of deductive reasoning.
In text citation 1 author (Name, year of publication) Reasoning works behind problem solving (Leighton, 2004) Name (year of publication) Leighton (2004) argued that reasoning works behind problem solving. Year of publication, name In 2004, Leighton argued that reasoning works behind problem solving.
In text citation 2 authors (1 st name & 2 nd name, year of publication) Inductive reasoning is also well known as a process of introducing new assumptions (Stenning & Monaghan, 2004) 1 st name and 2 nd name (year of publication) Stenning and Monaghan (2004) noted that inductive reasoning is also well known as a process of introducing new assumptions
In text citation 3to 5 authors Cite all names and publication year the first time, thereafter only the first author followed by et al. (even though in different paragraph) The first time cited (Joosse, Danbrook, & Parker, 1990). or Joosse, Danbrook, and Parker (1990)... Thereafter (Joosse et al., 1990). Joosse et al. (1990)...
In text citation 6 authors Cite only the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the year from the first citation. The first time cited.... (Danbrook et al., 2003). Danbrook et al. (2003)... Thereafter Danbrook et al. (2003) (Danbrook et al., 2003).
In text citation Multiple publications by same author (Hanson, 1992, 2012). or Hanson (1992, 2012)... Multiple publications by different author …(Danbrook, 1995; Joosse & Hooch, 1982; Parker, 1976). Unknown author... (“Reasoning”, 1997).
In text citation Corporate or group of authors If organization is recognized by abbreviation... (Human Early Learning Partnership [HELP], 2005) thereafter... …(HELP, 2005). If abbreviation not widely known, give the name in full every time:... (Canadian Research Council, 1996).
Citing from online sources or website...(Hanson, 2011, para. 2) Citing from secondary source.... (Goswami, 2008, as cited in Groendal, 2011). Goswami (2008, as cited in Groendal, 2011)... Groendal (2011) cited Goswami (2008) as finding... ONLY include the details of the source you read in the reference list (secondary source only)
Citing specific part from an article One of “the sub-types of inductive reasoning is analogical reasoning “ (Groendal, 2006, p. 45). Groendal (2006) argued that one of “the sub- types of inductive reasoning is analogical reasoning" (p. 45).
REFERENCE LIST 1 author Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1999). Deductive reasoning. Annual Review Psychology, 50, Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, doi: //
2 authors Rattermann, M. J., & Gentner, D. (1998). More evidence for a relational shift in the development of analogy: Children’s performance on a causal-mapping task. Cognitive Development, 13,
3 to 7 authors Hawkins, J., Pea, R. D., Glick, J., & Scribner, S. (1984). “Merds that laugh don’t like mushrooms”: Evidence for deductive reasoning by preschoolers. Developmental Psychology, 20, 584–594.
Article in journal paginated by VOLUME Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. American Psychologist, 54, ISSUE ISSUE ISSUE ISSUE VOLUME
Article in journal paginated by ISSUE Wagner, S., Winner, E., Cicchetti, D., Grdner, H. (1981). “Metaphorical” mapping in human infants. Child Development, 52(2), ISSUE ISSUE ISSUE ISSUE ISSUE Issue number
Book Hollister, R. (2003). The growth in after-school programs and their impact. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Edited book Stenning, K., & Monaghan, P. (2004). Strategies and knowledge representation. In J. P Leighton & R. J. Sternberg (2 nd Eds.), The nature of reasoning (pp ). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Basic Stylistics in APA Voice and point of view ◦ First person point of view ◦ Distinguish between the research and the researchers ◦ Use pronouns when explaining about experiments (who did the experiment) ◦ Use active voice instead of passive voice
Tips on paraphrasing ◦ Read & understand write your own sentence mark same words from original source double check the meaning ◦ Try to deliver your ideas and have the references to support your ideas (instead of listing the references to deliver the idea) ◦ Careful in using synonym (potentially change the meaning) ◦ Do not plagiarized yourself ◦ Paraphrase instead of quoting if the sentence is more than 40 words