2 Overview of Affective Factors in SLA What are affects?Why affective factors?How are affects and cognition related?Krashen’s Affective filtersElements of Affective factorsAffective activities
3 1. What are affects? The emotional side of human behaviors Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy of Affective domains1) Receiving2) Responding3) Valuing4) Organization of values into a system of beliefs5) Value System that becomes consistent with a person’s behavior
4 2. Why affective factors?Cognitive consideration of second language acquisition cannot provide the most fundamental side of human behavior.Language belongs to a person’s whole social being. It is part of one’s identity. (Williams 1944)
5 3. How are affects and cognition related? Neorobiological research indicates that reason and emotion are distinguishable but inseparable.(Damasio 1994; LeDoux 1996)Reason and emotion complement each other.1) Reason : set a goal2) Emotion : get us involved enough to act and to work towards the goalAttention and creation of meaning are made through emotional responses because the brain cannot process all the stimuli.Affect and cognition are both part of the learner’s whole-person development. (Arnold, Jane 2011)
6 4. Krashen’s Affective filters The filter controls how much input the learner comes into contact with, and how much input is converted into intake.It is ‘affective’ because the factors which determine its strength have to do with the learner’s motivation, self-confidence, or anxiety state.The affective factors influences the rate of development, but it does not affect the route.
7 5. Elements of Affective Factors Self-esteemInhibitionAnxietyEmpathyExtroversionRisk-takingAttitudeMotivation
8 Self-esteemA personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes that individuals hold towards themselves (Coopersmith 1967)Three levels of self-esteem1) global self-esteem : general assessment one makes of one’s own worth over time2) specific self-esteem : one’s self-appraisal in particular life situations3) task self-esteem : one’s self-appraisal in particular tasks within specific situationsSignificance in L2 learning : important roles in determining one’s willingness to communicate
9 Inhibition Sets of defenses all human beings build to protect the ego Language ego : very personal, egoistic nature of L2 acquisitionMeaningful L2 acquisition involves some degree of identity conflict.“thin” and “think” ego boundaries : the openness, vulnerability, and ambiguity tolerance of those with thin ego boundariesHow to deal with mistakes : unavoidable in L2 learning, but can be viewed as threats to one’s egoInfluence to language teaching : approaches to make students feel free to take risks, to orally try out hypotheses
10 Risk-takingLearners have to gamble a bit, to be willing to try out hunches about the language and take the risk of being wrong.A climate of acceptance will encourage students to experiment the target language and take risks without feeling embarrassed.Calculate and willing guesses > meaningless verbal guessesSelf-esteem and risk-taking: a person with high global self-esteem is not daunted by the possible consequences of being laughed at.Fossilization: could be due to a lack of willingness to take risks
11 AnxietyFeelings associated with uneasiness, frustration, self-doubt, apprehension or worryDifferent levels of anxiety1) global or trait anxiety: a more permanent predisposition to be anxious2) situational or state anxiety: experienced in relation to some particular event
12 Anxiety Debilitative vs Facilitative anxiety 1) debilitative anxiety: anxiety as a negative factor2) facilitative anxiety: some concern over a task to be accomplished is a positive factor.performancePositive effects of competitiveness…. it motivates students to work harder -> should be optimal!Level of anxietyOptimal level of anxiety
13 Empathy The Empathic Civilization The process of reaching beyond the self to understand what another person is feeling.Empathy – possibility of detachmentSympathy – an agreement or harmony between individualsCommunication requires a sophisticated degree of empathy.The reason that autistic children have difficulty in communicating with others – they tend to view life in terms of their own needs and desires.
14 ExtroversionExtroversion – the extent to which a person has a deep-seated need to receive ego enhancement, self-esteem, and a sense of wholeness from other peopleIntroversion – the extent to which a person derives a sense of wholeness and fulfillment apart from a reflection of this self from other people.Myth 1 – extroversion with better social adjustment and higher oral participation (cross-cultural norms)Myth 2 – extroversion with higher empathyIt may work for face-to-face interaction of language learning , but not for listening, reading or writing.Myth 1 – different appreciation of extroversion in the classroom / relativity of degree of extroversion among countries
15 AttitudeAttitude toward self: related to self-esteem, ‘Do I have an adequate mind, and am I the kind of person that other people are willing to spend time with?’ → affirmative answer: better able to engage in L2 learningAttitude toward the Target Language and the people who speak it;Negative stereotypes: undermine attempts at language acquisitionaffect the self-esteem of the group’s membersencourage negative attitudes toward the TL and culture, especially if the teacher and peers fail to show respect for the L1 culture and languageSecond one is something that ESL teachers need to be very careful about.
16 Attitude Attitudes toward the Teacher and the Classroom Environment How to cope with the communication breakdowns in the classroom (Scarcella, 1990)1) Encourage the development of friendship2) Emphasize commonalities3) Create a place in which the experiences, capacities, interests, and goals of every classroom member are simultaneously utilized for the benefit of all4) Teach all students how their communications styles can be misinterpreted
17 6. Affective ActivitiesTo create an environment that fosters an appreciation of differences so that it encourages individual growth and decrease hostility.Useful and important in ESL classes in which many different value systems are brought togetherTeachers and students are to remain objective throughout the activity, to listen thoughtfully and nonjudgmentally.
18 6. Affective Activities (examples) Open-ended sentencesIf I were older, I would…One thing I do well is ….My brother (sister) makes me feel ….People seem to respect me when I ….When people tease me, I ….If I could have one wish come true, I would wish for …
19 6. Affective Activities (examples) Value Survey: Students are asked questions and are given 3 or 4 choices. When giving the instructions, stress that there are no right or wrong answers.Value VotingMy favorite possessionA Helping Hand
20 ResourceBrown, H. Douglas, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (2000) Fourth Edition, LongmanRichard-Amato, Patricia A., Making It Happen(1996) Second Edition, LongmanARNOLD, Jane 2011, Attention to Affect in Language Learning, International Journal of English Studies, 22/1, 11-22Hui Ni 2012, The Effects of Affective Factors in SLA and Pedagogical Implications, Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol 2