2 1. Identify what this is.2. Explain what it is to someone who may not know.
3 Symbolic Interactionism DefinitionThe process of interaction in the formation of meanings for individuals.
4 Symbolic Interactionism Three Core Principles-Meaning-Language-Thought
5 Meaning:states that humans act toward people and things according to the meanings they give to those people or things.
6 Symbolic Interactionism holds the principal of meaning to be the central aspect of human behavior.
7 First, you identify symbols. -Usually done on a surface level as it is a subconscious act.Q: What are some things thats meaning may be analyzed on a deeper level? Even subconsciously?
8 Language:gives humans a means by which to negotiate meaning through symbols.
9 Second, attempt to explain the symbol Humans identify meaning in speech acts with others.What LANGUAGE do you use to explain this object?-The language used (word choice, tone, etc.) alters the interpretation of the meaning.Q: What is an example?
10 Thought: modifies each individual’s interpretation of symbols Thought: modifies each individual’s interpretation of symbols. Thought is a mental conversation that requires different points of view.
11 Thought What does this symbol and language mean to you? Our filters shape our understanding
12 With these 3 elements the concept of "self" can be framed. How?
14 cognitive and motivational basis of intergroup differentiation. Definitioncognitive and motivational basis of intergroup differentiation.ORIn the Social Identity Theory, a person has not one, “personal self”, but rather several selves that correspond to widening circles of group membership
15 Different social contexts may trigger an individual to think, feel and act on basis of his personal, family or national “level of self”
16 Q: What is an example of a social identity? Apart from the “level of self”, an individual has multiple “social identities”.Social identity is the individual’s self-concept derived from perceived membership of social groupsQ: What is an example of a social identity?
17 Group membership creates ingroup/ self-categorization and enhancement in ways that favor the in-group at the expense of the out-group.
18 Groupthink: The practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility
19 Homework Due on Friday November 2nd Part 1 -Bring in something that you think symbolizes and/or has been a big part in the creation of your "self".Part 2 -Option 1: Illustrate your understanding of Social Identity Theory. (Picture, chart, graph, diagram)Option 2: Bring in an illustration showing your understanding of Social Identity Theory. (magazine cut out, internet finding, advertisement, etc.)
22 Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive: thinking or the mind Dissonance: inconsistency or conflictDefinition –The psychological conflict from holding two or more incompatible beliefs simultaneously
23 Theory Suggest that1: dissonance is psychologically uncomfortable enough to motivate people to achieve consonance2: In a state of dissonance, people will avoid information and situations that might increase the dissonance
24 CD Theory applies to all situations involving attitude and formation. First, people are manipulated into a certain behavior.Second, people will alter their attitudes themselves. (formation)ExampleI smoke. (attitude)Smoking can kill you. (manipulation)Well, you have to die anyways. (alter attitude/formation)
30 Expectancy Value Theory DefinitionBehavior is a function of the expectancies one has and the value of the goal toward which one is working.
31 ExampleIf you think the test is going to be hard you will pay more attention in class.Expectancy: Hard TestValue: Good GradesQ: How did your expectations & values alter your behavior?
32 The Theory PredictsWhen more than one behavior is possible, the behavior chosen will be the one with the largest combination of expected success and value
33 Do I want to do the task? Intrinsic Value Enjoyment one feels when doing the task or the enjoyment one expects to experience while one is engaged in the task.
34 Do I want to do the task? Utility Value Utility value is determined by how well a task fits into an individual's goals and plans or fulfills other basic psychological needs.
35 Do I want to do the task? Perceived Cost The value of a task also depends on a set of beliefs that can best be characterized as the cost of participating in the activity.Cost is influenced by many factors:Anticipated anxietyFear of failureFear of the social consequences of success;Such as rejection by peers or anticipated racial discriminationAnger from one's parents or other key people
36 You have an expectation of what is going to happen. Then you attach a value to it based off of those three examples.Then you make the decision that will benefit you most in success
37 What can we draw from this idea? People are goal orientedOur Behaviors are still performed based off of our beliefs and values – but are done to achieve an “end”