Presentation on theme: "What is linguistics It is the science of language. Linguistics is the systematic study of language. The field of linguistics is concerned with the."— Presentation transcript:
What is linguistics It is the science of language. Linguistics is the systematic study of language. The field of linguistics is concerned with the study of human language as a universal part of human behavior and thinking.
Theory A theory is a based upon a hypothesis and backed by evidence. A theory presents a concept or idea that is testable. In science, a theory is not merely a guess. A theory is a fact-based framework for describing a phenomenon.hypothesis
Theoretical linguistics is the branch of linguistics that is most concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge. The fields that are generally considered the core of theoretical linguistics are syntax, phonology, morphology, and semantics.linguisticssyntaxphonologymorphologysemantics
A Linguist A linguist therefore is a person who studies language not for the purpose of mastering a particular language or languages but for the purpose of studying the principles that govern language and establish it as a system that fulfils the human needs for communication. A linguist need not to be a person who speaks many languages( a polyglot) A linguist may build up his hypothesis and draw up his conclusion using one language. a person who is skilled in some way with a given language, including ancient languages. The term can be used to describe a person who specializes in linguistics, which is the study of language, At the same time, this title may be used for someone who is fluent in multiple languages.linguistics
Research in linguistics is objective. Its general hypotheses are not based on previous ideas or beliefs. It doesn’t enforce or promote any standards of language use. The research method is empirical, that is proceeds by observation, descriptions and then explanation. These are the three stages. of linguistics enquiry Linguists begin by observing the way in which people use language and then they provide description of language use. After that they provide explanations. These explanations seeks to establish rules that govern the speakers’ language.
The central topics of linguistics are phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. Phonology is concerned with the sounds of a language, Morphology with the structure of words, syntax with the way we string words together to form phrases and sentences and semantics with the way we assign meaning to the units of language.
In addition to these levels (phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics) There are numerous sub-branches that reflect the diversity of contexts in which language is used. E.g sociolinguistics ( the study of language and society ), psycholinguistics ( the study of language and mind ) historical linguistics ( the study of history of language ) and many others.
Linguistics tries to answer some basic questions about language: " what language is?" "How does language work?", " what do all language have in common?"," Why do languages change?", " How do we learn to speak?", and so on. Linguistics takes as its foundation, First, That language is uniquely human and second, that language do not privilege any particular variety or form of language or any group of users.all languages are the same
What's language? Every one of us knows what language is. Yet linguists have been unable to give a comprehensive definition of language; a definition that covers every feature of it. What language is? Uses the word " language" in the singular without the indefinite article "a" this is because the word "language" here refers to language in general i.e the faculty that all human beings possess. Natural language: when we say only "natural language" we exclude a variety of other systems such as the languages that mathematicians, logicians and computer scientists construct for particular purposes
Some definitions of language "language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotion and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols." Sapir (1921:8) "Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbol by means of which a social group cooperates." Bloch & Trager (1942:5) " Language is the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with each other by means of habitually used oral-auditory arbitrary symbols." Hall (1968:158)
"" A language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements." Noam Chomsky (1957:13) AAccording to the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia language is defined as: 1. A mental faculty, organ or instinct TThis faculty allows humans to learn languages and produce and understand utterances. TThis definition stresses the universality and biological basis of the human capacity for language. This view is associated with Noam Chomsky and his theory of universal grammar and the innateness hypothesis.
2. A formal symbolic system This definition sees language as a formal system of signs governed by grammatical rules of combination to communicate meaning. This definition stresses the fact that languages can be described as structural systems consisting of rules that relate signs to meanings. This definition is associated with Ferdinand de Saussure. 3. A tool for communication Another definition sees language as a system of communication that enables humans to cooperate. This definition stresses the social functions of language and the study of language within a functional and sociolinguistic framework.
Each of the definitions mentioned above gives partial description. None of them gives a comprehensive description. However they serve to introduce some of the properties of language. Most of them take the view that language is a system of symbols designed for the purpose of communication. These systems are innate, structural, and universal. On the basis of these definitions we can identify some characteristics of language.