The Spread of Ideas Why was the printing press an important part of the Renaissance, Reformation, and Scientific Revolution? Europeans admired the Italian focus on wealth, beauty, and achievement. Johannes Gutenberg (German) c.1450 –invented movable type printing press * * –much faster than hand printing By 1500 –about 12 million books in print People read –the Bible –books by Italian humanists By 1550s –Renaissance ideals a part of northern European culture Renaissance Beyond Italy
How did the ideas of the Italian Renaissance spread across Europe? By 1550s –Renaissance ideals a part of northern European culture Students came to Italian Universities –learned humanist ideals –took humanist values home with them Italian Women –studied – but only at home –married into families across Europe –spread Renaissance ideas
Ideas and Ideals How did feudalism in northern Europe make the character of the Renaissance different in the north than in Italy? Italian Women studied – but only at home married into families across Europe spread Renaissance ideas Northern Europe feudal states rulers & patrons: nobles & royalty learning centered on royal courts fewer large towns – church had more active role continued to believe in spiritual – also studied Hebrew Southern Europe ( Italy ) city-states rulers & patrons: patrician families learning centered on homes of great families larger cities – valued “life on earth, here and now” more secular, non-religious - studied Roman & Greek humanism
How did the scholar Erasmus represent northern humanism? Both began to question traditional church customs. Christian Humanism –focused NOT on Greece & Rome but the history of Christianity –combination of humanist & religious ideas –felt that the Roman Church was corrupt –called for Church reform Desiderius Erasmus (Dutch) thought –everyone should be able to read Bible believers not rely on services in Latin –church teaching should be “understandable” –criticized corrupt clergy in book: In Praise of Folly –wanted to rid Church of meaningless rituals continued to believe in spiritual – also studied Hebrew more secular, non-religious - studied Roman & Greek humanism
How were northern artists different than Italian artists? Desiderius Erasmus (Dutch) thought –everyone should be able to read Bible believers not rely on services in Latin –church teaching should be “understandable” –criticized corrupt clergy in book: In Praise of Folly –wanted to rid Church of meaningless rituals Northern European Artists –did not paint everyone to look like Greek Gods –painted realistic people – with flaws –painted scenes from “everyday life*”* Albrect Dürer (artist/painter) –great detail in his paintings –most famous for “The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Miguel de Cervantes (writer) –wrote in the vernacular (common language) –most famous for: “Don Quixote”Don Quixote –made fun of nobles and ideas of Middle Ages More Achievements
Achievements Describe some of the achievements of the northern Renaissance. Artists painted more realistically. Writers wrote about religion, politics, and human behavior. Scientists made important discoveries. Thomas More wrote Utopia and said –all men should be treated equally. William Shakespeare (English) –created real characters Paracelsus (Swiss) –gave poison to destroy disease Ambrose Pare (French) –created bandages –used thread instead of burning to close wounds.
Summary Task Write 3 to 5 good, complete sentences that describe (in general) what exactly Lesson 4 is about.
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrect Drüer ( a “woodcut” woodblock print )
Return of the Hunters: Pieter Brueghel
(a scene from) Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes ( famous phrase: “tilting at windmills” )
William Shakespeare ( playwright ) (perhaps) most famous for: Romeo & Juliet