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Marine Biology. Ocean Habitats A. There are two major marine provinces: the benthic (bottom) and the pelagic (water column). – 1. The benthic environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Biology. Ocean Habitats A. There are two major marine provinces: the benthic (bottom) and the pelagic (water column). – 1. The benthic environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine Biology

2 Ocean Habitats A. There are two major marine provinces: the benthic (bottom) and the pelagic (water column). – 1. The benthic environment is divided by depth into the: Intertidal zone, Sublittoral zone, Bathyal zone, Abyssal zone, and the Hadal zone – 2. The pelagic environment is divided into the Neritic Zone and the Oceanic Zone

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4 Ocean Habitats B. The ocean can also be divided into zones based upon depth of light penetration. – 1. The photic zone is the depth where light is sufficient for photosynthesis. Photic Zone

5 Ocean Habitats – 2. The dysphotic zone is where illumination is too weak for photosynthesis. – 3. The aphotic zone receives no light from the surface because it is all absorbed by the water above.

6 Classification of Organisms C. In 1735, Charles Linnaeus developed the taxonomic classification used in zoology.

7 Classification of Organisms – 1. The categories are from largest to smallest: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. – 2. The scientific name of an organism consists of the genus name combined with the species name.

8 Classification of Organisms a. The genus name begins with a capital and the species name with a lowercase, and is usually in italics. b. Example: Common Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

9 Classification of Organisms D. The five major kingdoms in the ocean are: Monera, Protista, Chromista, Fungi, and Metazoa.

10 Classification of Organisms 1. Monera are the bacteria and blue-green algae.

11 Classification of Organisms 2. Protista are single-celled organisms with a nucleus.

12 Classification of Organisms – 3. Chromista are marine plants, either floating or attached to the seafloor.

13 Classification of Organisms – 4. Fungi are abundant in the intertidal zone and are important in decomposition.

14 Classification of Organisms – 5. Metazoa include all multicellular animals in the ocean.

15 Classification by Lifestyle E. Marine organisms can also be classified by lifestyle.

16 Classification by Lifestyle E. Marine organisms can also be classified by lifestyle. – 1. Plankton are the organisms which float in the water and have no ability to propel themselves against a current. a. They can be divided into phytoplankton (plants) and zooplankton (animals).

17 Classification by Lifestyle E. Marine organisms can also be classified by lifestyle. – 1. Plankton are the organisms which float in the water and have no ability to propel themselves against a current. a. They can be divided into phytoplankton (plants) and zooplankton (animals). – 2. Nekton are active swimmers and include marine fish, reptiles, mammals, birds and others.

18 Classification by Lifestyle E. Marine organisms can also be classified by lifestyle. – 1. Plankton are the organisms which float in the water and have no ability to propel themselves against a current. a. They can be divided into phytoplankton (plants) and zooplankton (animals). – 2. Nekton are active swimmers and include marine fish, reptiles, mammals, birds and others. – 3. Benthos are the organisms which live on the bottom (epifauna) or within the bottom sediments (infauna).

19 Classification by Lifestyle E. Marine organisms can also be classified by lifestyle. – 1. Plankton are the organisms which float in the water and have no ability to propel themselves against a current. a. They can be divided into phytoplankton (plants) and zooplankton (animals). – 2. Nekton are active swimmers and include marine fish, reptiles, mammals, birds and others. – 3. Benthos are the organisms which live on the bottom (epifauna) or within the bottom sediments (infauna). – 4. Some organisms cross from one lifestyle to another during their life, being pelagic early in life and benthic later.

20 Basic Ecology Ecology is the study of the interrelationships between the physical and biological aspects of the environment. It is the study of how organisms adapt to their environment and in turn alter it.

21 Basic Ecology F. Environmental factors in the marine environment include: temperature, salinity, pressure, nutrients, dissolved gases, currents, light, suspended sediments, substrate (bottom material), river inflow, tides and waves.

22 Basic Ecology F. Environmental factors in the marine environment include: temperature, salinity, pressure, nutrients, dissolved gases, currents, light, suspended sediments, substrate (bottom material), river inflow, tides and waves. – 1. Ecosystem is the total environment including the biota (all living organisms) and non-living physical and chemical aspects.

23 Basic Ecology F. Environmental factors in the marine environment include: temperature, salinity, pressure, nutrients, dissolved gases, currents, light, suspended sediments, substrate (bottom material), river inflow, tides and waves. – 1. Ecosystem is the total environment including the biota (all living organisms) and non-living physical and chemical aspects. – 2. Temperature can control distribution, degree of activity and reproduction of an organism.

24 Basic Ecology F. Environmental factors in the marine environment include: temperature, salinity, pressure, nutrients, dissolved gases, currents, light, suspended sediments, substrate (bottom material), river inflow, tides and waves. – 1. Ecosystem is the total environment including the biota (all living organisms) and non-living physical and chemical aspects. – 2. Temperature can control distribution, degree of activity and reproduction of an organism. – 3. Salinity can control the distribution of organisms and force them to migrate in response to changes in salinity.

25 Basic Ecology F. Environmental factors in the marine environment include: temperature, salinity, pressure, nutrients, dissolved gases, currents, light, suspended sediments, substrate (bottom material), river inflow, tides and waves. – 1. Ecosystem is the total environment including the biota (all living organisms) and non-living physical and chemical aspects. – 2. Temperature can control distribution, degree of activity and reproduction of an organism. – 3. Salinity can control the distribution of organisms and force them to migrate in response to changes in salinity. – 4. Hydrostatic pressure is the pressures exerted by a column of water surrounding an organism.

26 Basic Ecology An example of a biota: – Giant kelp forests support lots of life, including sea urchins (an invertebrate).

27 Basic Ecology An example of a biota: – Giant kelp forests support lots of life, including sea urchins (an invertebrate). – Sea urchins can easily eat a kelp forest if population is not limited. This means all the other animals who rely on the kelp forest for food and shelter must find it elsewhere.

28 Basic Ecology An example of a biota: – Giant kelp forests support lots of life, including sea urchins (an invertebrate). – Sea urchins can easily eat a kelp forest if population is not limited. This means all the other animals who rely on the kelp forest for food and shelter must find it elsewhere. – Sea otters eat sea urchins. – If sea otters are present in the area of the kelp forests, sea urchin population is controlled and the kelp forests survive. – ALL THESE THINGS NEED ONE ANOTHER! Sea Urchin Biota Video

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