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Chapter 12 The Marine Habitat

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1 Chapter 12 The Marine Habitat
Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition

2 The diversity of marine life
The ocean is home to a wide variety of organisms Marine organisms range from microscopic bacteria and algae to the largest animal in the world (blue whale) Number of known marine species: 250,000

3 Classification of living things
Organisms can be classified into one of three domains of life: Archaea Bacteria Eukarya Figure 12-1

4 Classification of living things
Organisms can also be classified into one of five kingdoms: Monera Protoctista Fungi Plantae Animalia Figure 12-1

5 Classification of living things
Taxonomic classification includes the following increasingly specific groupings: Kingdom Phylum (Division for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species

6 Taxonomic classification of selected organisms
Category Human Killer whale Giant kelp Kingdom Animalia Protoctista Phylum Chordata Phaeophyta Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Phaeophycae Order Primates Cetacea Laminariales Family Hominidae Delphinidae Lessoniaceae Genus Homo Orcinus Macrocystis Species sapiens orca pyrifera

7 Classification of marine organisms
Marine organisms can be classified into one of three groups based on habitat and mobility: Plankton (floaters) Phytoplankton (drifting plants and algae) Zooplankton (drifting animals) Nekton (swimmers) Benthos (bottom dwellers)

8 Plankton: Examples Phytoplankton Zooplankton Figure 12-2

9 Nekton: Examples Figure 12-4

10 Benthos: Examples Figure 12-5

11 Life cycle of a squid Squid experience benthic, planktonic, and nektonic stages Squid are considered meroplankton (opposite = holoplankton) Figure 12-3

12 Distribution of species on Earth
The land has more species because it has greater environmental variability than the ocean Most ocean species are benthic because of greater environmental variability compared to pelagic environments Figure 12-6

13 Adaptations of organisms to the marine environment
The marine environment presents many challenges to organisms because seawater: Is dense enough to support organisms Has high viscosity Experiences variations in temperature and salinity Contains variable amounts of dissolved gases Has high transparency Has a dramatic change of pressure with depth Marine organisms have various adaptations for the conditions of the marine environment

14 Need for physical support
Condition: Seawater is dense enough to support marine organisms Adaptations: Many marine organisms lack rigid skeletons, appendages, or vast root systems Instead, they rely on buoyancy and friction to maintain their position within the water column

15 Seawater’s viscosity controlled by temperature
Condition: Seawater’s viscosity (resistance to flow) is strongly affected by temperature Cold water has higher viscosity than warm water, so is more difficult to swim through Warm water has lower viscosity, so organisms tend to sink within the water column

16 Seawater’s viscosity controlled by temperature
Adaptations: Many warm-water organisms have ornate appendages to say afloat Many cold-water organisms are streamlined to swim more easily Warm-water copepod Cold-water copepod Figure 12-7

17 Seawater’s viscosity and adaptations of phytoplankton
Condition: Phytoplankton must remain in sunlit surface waters Adaptations: Small size increases surface area to volume ratio Appendages increase frictional resistance Tiny droplet of low density oil increases buoyancy Figure 12-8

18 Variations in temperature
Condition: Coastal water temperatures vary more than the open ocean or at depth Adaptations: Many coastal organisms can withstand a wide temperature range (are eurythermal) Most open ocean and deep-water organisms can withstand only a small temperature range (are stenothermal)

19 Variations in salinity
Condition: Coastal environments experience greater salinity variation than the open ocean or at depth Adaptations: Many shallow-water coastal organisms can withstand a wide salinity range (are euryhaline) Most open ocean and deep-water organisms can withstand only a small change in salinity (are stenohaline)

20 Osmosis Condition: Osmosis is the movement of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from higher to lower concentrations Osmosis removes water from hypotonic organisms Osmosis adds water to hypertonic organisms Figure 12-13

21 Osmosis Adaptations: Figure 12-14

22 Dissolved gases: Oxygen
Condition: Marine animals need oxygen to survive Adaptations: Many marine animals use gills to extract dissolved oxygen from seawater Marine mammals must breathe air Figure 12-15

23 Abundance of dissolved oxygen and nutrients with depth
Figure 12-20

24 Seawater’s high transparency
Condition: Seawater has high transparency Adaptations: Transparency Camouflage Countershading Migration (DSL) Camouflage Countershading Figure 12-17

25 The deep scattering layer (DSL)
Organisms within the deep scattering layer undertake a daily migration to hide in deep, darker waters during daytime Figure 12B

26 Increase of pressure with depth
Condition: Pressure increases rapidly with depth Adaptations: Most marine organisms lack large compressible air pockets inside their bodies Water-filled bodies exert the same amount of pressure as is pushing inward, so marine organisms do not feel the high pressure at depth

27 Divisions of the marine environment
Main divisions: Pelagic (open sea) Benthic (sea bottom) Figure 12-19

28 Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition
End of Chapter 12 Essentials of Oceanography 7th Edition

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