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CHAPTER 12 Marine Life and the Marine Environment Fig. 12.5.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 12 Marine Life and the Marine Environment Fig. 12.5."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 12 Marine Life and the Marine Environment Fig. 12.5

2 Overview More than 250,000 identified marine species More than 250,000 identified marine species Most live in sunlit surface seawater Most live in sunlit surface seawater Species success depends on ability to Species success depends on ability to Find food Find food Avoid predation Avoid predation Reproduce Reproduce Cope with physical barriers to movement Cope with physical barriers to movement

3 Classification of living organisms Physical characteristics Physical characteristics Three domains Three domains Archaea Archaea Bacteria Bacteria Eukarya Eukarya Fig. 12.1

4 Classification of living organisms Physical characteristics Physical characteristics Five kingdoms Five kingdoms Monera Monera Protoctista Protoctista Fungi Fungi Plantae Plantae Animalia Animalia Fig. 12.1

5 Five kingdoms Monera simplest organisms, single-celled Monera simplest organisms, single-celled Cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, archaea Cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, archaea Protoctista single and multicelled with nucleus Protoctista single and multicelled with nucleus Algae, protozoa Algae, protozoa Fungi Fungi Mold, lichen Mold, lichen Plantae multicelled photosynthetic plants Plantae multicelled photosynthetic plants Surf grass, eelgrass, mangrove, marsh grasses Surf grass, eelgrass, mangrove, marsh grasses Animalia multicelled animals Animalia multicelled animals Simple sponges to complex vertebrates Simple sponges to complex vertebrates

6 Taxonomic classification Systemized classification of organisms Systemized classification of organisms Kingdom Kingdom Phylum Phylum Class Class Order Order Family Family Genus Genus Species Species Fundamental unit Fundamental unit Population of genetically similar, interbreeding individuals Population of genetically similar, interbreeding individuals

7 Classification by habitat and mobility Plankton (floaters) Plankton (floaters) Nekton (swimmers) Nekton (swimmers) Benthos (bottom dwellers) Benthos (bottom dwellers) Fig. 12.6

8 Plankton Most biomass on Earth consists of plankton Most biomass on Earth consists of plankton Phytoplankton Phytoplankton Autotrophic Autotrophic Zooplankton Zooplankton Heterotrophic Heterotrophic Bacterioplankton Bacterioplankton Virioplankton Virioplankton

9 Plankton Holoplankton Holoplankton Entire lives as plankton Entire lives as plankton Meroplankton Meroplankton Part of lives as plankton Part of lives as plankton Juvenile or larval stages Juvenile or larval stages Macroplankton Macroplankton Large floaters such as jellyfish or Sargassum Large floaters such as jellyfish or Sargassum Picoplankton Picoplankton Very small floaters such as bacterioplankton Very small floaters such as bacterioplankton

10 Nekton Independent swimmers Independent swimmers Most adult fish and squid Most adult fish and squid Marine mammals Marine mammals Marine reptiles Marine reptiles Fig. 12.3

11 Benthos Epifauna live on surface of sea floor Epifauna live on surface of sea floor Infauna live buried in sediments Infauna live buried in sediments Nektobenthos swim or crawl through water above seafloor Nektobenthos swim or crawl through water above seafloor Most abundant in shallower water Most abundant in shallower water

12 Hydrothermal vent biocommunities Abundant and large deep-ocean benthos Abundant and large deep-ocean benthos Discovered in 1977 Discovered in 1977 Associated with hot vents Associated with hot vents Bacteria-like archaeon produce food using heat and chemicals Bacteria-like archaeon produce food using heat and chemicals

13 Number of marine species More land species than marine species More land species than marine species Ocean relatively uniform conditions Ocean relatively uniform conditions Less adaptation required, less speciation Less adaptation required, less speciation Marine species overwhelmingly benthic rather than pelagic Marine species overwhelmingly benthic rather than pelagic

14 Adaptations of marine organisms Physical support Physical support Buoyancy How to resist sinking Different support structures in cold (fewer) rather than warm (more appendages) seawater Smaller size

15 Adaptations to marine life Appendages to increase surface area Appendages to increase surface area Oil in micro-organisms to increase buoyancy Oil in micro-organisms to increase buoyancy Fig. 12.9

16 Adaptations to marine life Streamlining important for larger organisms Streamlining important for larger organisms Less resistance to fluid flow Less resistance to fluid flow Flattened body Flattened body Tapering back end Tapering back end Fig

17 Adaptations to marine life Narrow range temperature in oceans Narrow range temperature in oceans Smaller variations (daily, seasonally, annually) Smaller variations (daily, seasonally, annually) Deep ocean nearly isothermal Deep ocean nearly isothermal Fig

18 Adaptations to marine life Cold- versus warm-water species Cold- versus warm-water species Smaller in cooler seawater Smaller in cooler seawater More appendages in warmer seawater More appendages in warmer seawater Tropical organisms grow faster, live shorter, reproduce more often Tropical organisms grow faster, live shorter, reproduce more often More species in warmer seawater More species in warmer seawater More biomass in cooler seawater (upwelling) More biomass in cooler seawater (upwelling)

19 Adaptations to marine life Stenothermal Stenothermal Organisms withstand small variation in temperature Organisms withstand small variation in temperature Typically live in open ocean Typically live in open ocean Eurythermal Eurythermal Organisms withstand large variation in temperature Organisms withstand large variation in temperature Typically live in coastal waters Typically live in coastal waters

20 Adaptations to marine life Stenohaline Stenohaline Organisms withstand only small variation in salinity Organisms withstand only small variation in salinity Typically live in open ocean Typically live in open ocean Euryhaline Euryhaline Organisms withstand large variation in salinity Organisms withstand large variation in salinity Typically live in coastal waters, e.g., estuaries Typically live in coastal waters, e.g., estuaries

21 Adaptations to marine life Extracting minerals from seawater Extracting minerals from seawater High concentration to low concentration High concentration to low concentration Diffusion Diffusion Cell membrane permeable to nutrients, for example Cell membrane permeable to nutrients, for example Waste passes from cell to ocean Waste passes from cell to ocean Fig

22 Adaptations to marine life Osmotic pressure Osmotic pressure Less concentrated to more concentrated solutions Less concentrated to more concentrated solutions Isotonic Isotonic Hypertonic Hypertonic Hypotonic Hypotonic Fig

23 Marine versus freshwater fish Fig

24 Adaptations to marine life Dissolved gases Dissolved gases Animals extract dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) from seawater through gills Animals extract dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) from seawater through gills Fig

25 Adaptations to marine life Water’s transparency Water’s transparency Many marine organisms see well Many marine organisms see well Some marine organisms are nearly transparent to avoid predation Some marine organisms are nearly transparent to avoid predation

26 Adaptations to marine life Camouflage through color patterns Camouflage through color patterns Countershading Countershading Disruptive coloring Disruptive coloring Fig aFig b

27 Adaptations to marine life Water pressure Water pressure Increases about 1 atmosphere (1 kg/cm 2 ) with every 10 m (33 ft) deeper Increases about 1 atmosphere (1 kg/cm 2 ) with every 10 m (33 ft) deeper Many marine organisms do not have inner air pockets Many marine organisms do not have inner air pockets Collapsible rib cage (e.g., sperm whale) Collapsible rib cage (e.g., sperm whale)

28 Main divisions of the marine environment Pelagic (open sea) Pelagic (open sea) Neritic (< 200 m) and oceanic Neritic (< 200 m) and oceanic Benthic (sea floor) Benthic (sea floor) Subneritic and suboceanic Subneritic and suboceanic Another classification scheme: Another classification scheme: Euphotic Euphotic Disphotic Disphotic Aphotic Aphotic

29 Pelagic environments Epipelagic Epipelagic Mesopelagic Mesopelagic Bathypelagic Bathypelagic Abyssopelagic Abyssopelagic Fig

30 Pelagic environments Dissolved O 2 minimum layer about m Dissolved O 2 minimum layer about m Nutrient maximum at about same depths Nutrient maximum at about same depths O 2 content increases with depth below O 2 content increases with depth below Fig

31 Benthic environments Supralittoral Supralittoral Subneritic Subneritic Littoral Littoral Sublittoral Sublittoral Inner Inner Outer Outer Suboceanic Suboceanic Bathyal Bathyal Abyssal Abyssal Hadal Hadal Fig

32 End of CHAPTER 12 Marine Life and the Marine Environment


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