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Terrorism The Motivation Behind Terrorism Including Religious Motivations for Suicide Bombings By Steve Evans & Pete Caddy.

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Presentation on theme: "Terrorism The Motivation Behind Terrorism Including Religious Motivations for Suicide Bombings By Steve Evans & Pete Caddy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Terrorism The Motivation Behind Terrorism Including Religious Motivations for Suicide Bombings By Steve Evans & Pete Caddy

2 What is Terrorism? The calculated use of violence (or the threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature; this is done through intimidation or coercion or instilling fear The premeditated and unlawful use or threatened use of violence against a non-combatant population with the aim of inducing political change or destroying a population identified as an enemy (Princeton Definition) (Terrorism, Crime & Public Policy, 2009)

3 What is a Terrorist? A radical who employs terror as a political weapon; usually organizes with other terrorists in small cells; often uses religion as a cover for terrorist activities (Princeton Definition)

4 Motivations Every terrorist act has a specific, premeditated goal, with a predicted outcome Psychologists define motivation as “the needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people in certain directions”

5 Change Achievement of a goal through coercion Rationalise a violent act Further a Cause

6 Social Change the structure of society Leave a lasting impression Easiest way to get a message across Aspects of Government, but not the government itself Eg. IRA, Unabomber

7 Political Want voices heard Militia or rebel group Rid society of an undesired ruling power Show disapproval of government policy Eg. Oklahoma City Bombings

8 Revenge Avenge an unjust or offensive act Get back at the government Personal vendetta against someone Eg. Columbine High School

9 Attention Public fear No warning before attacks Helplessness, vulnerability Attention gained, message delivered

10 Symbolism Every terrorist act is symbolic Weakens confidence “We can get you anywhere, any time. There is no one to protect you” (The Centre for Mental Services, 1996) Displays power

11 Religious Only God can judge me It is written in scripture Promise of Eternal Rewards Everlasting Bliss Religious Battles in early History

12 October 2002, Car Bombing, Kuta, Indonesia (Symbolic) December 1988, mid-air bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland (Political) April 1995, Truck Bombing, Oklahoma City (Political) Since 2003, Iraq, 15 attacks, each killing more than 100 people In 5 months, from Aug 1997 – Jan 1998, Algeria, 5 attacks, each killing over 100 people (Political) March 2004, Madrid, Spain, four train bombings America’s war with Afghanistan, Revenge??? Northern Ireland, , IRA Attacks (Change, Social & Political)

13 Martyrdom vs Suicide Bombing Martyr: a person who is killed because of their religious or other beliefs Suicide: the action of killing oneself intentionally AskOxford.com

14 Martyrdom in the path of Allah is from the greatest of deeds, the reward of which is no less than Paradise Martyrdom vs Suicide Bombing – An Islamic Perspective Suicide, on the other hand, is from the most reprehensible of deeds, the reward of which is no less than Hellfire

15 A martyr is the exact opposite of a suicide bomber. A martyr is someone who upholds – by his being unjustly killed – it is never right to do wrong, even to oneself, no less to others. A suicide bomber, therefore, cannot be a martyr. Both John Paul II and Benedict XVI have said that such deeds can never be justified by reason or religion. To approve and foster suicide bombing is to make something intrinsically evil to appear as good. Martyrdom vs Suicide Bombing – A Christian Perspective

16 So, what motivates a terrorist? It would seem that most terrorists have several motives for committing their acts. Most of the time, the 7 motives outlined could be used to try and explain the motives of an individual terrorist The only true way to determine their motives is to ask the terrorists themselves!

17 Want to know more? Try these: Andrews, L. “Motivations for Terrorism”, The Developmental Psychology Netletter. Meso, Arizona (Accessed 13/4/10) html html Center of Excellence Defence Against Terrorism (Ed.). (2007). “Religious Motivations and Suicide Bombings”, Suicide as a Weapon. Amsterdam, NLD: IOS Press on?docID= on?docID= Egendorf, L. K. (Ed.). (2000). Terrorism: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press, Inc. Forst, B. (2009). Terrorism, Crime & Public Policy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Manhaj, S. (2007). Martyrdom in Islam Versus Suicide Bombing! (Accessed 13/4/10) Suicide-Bombinghttp://www.scribd.com/doc/ /Martyrdom-in-Islam-Versus- Suicide-Bombing Schall, Fr. J.V. (2005). Martyrs and Suicide Bombers. (Accessed 13/4/10) asp asp All images courtesy of Google Images


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