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Fuel Cells Kendra Lena FYSM Science and the Consumer Dr. Moyer
What are fuel cells? Devices that generate electricity from chemical reactions The reactions take place between electrodes Catalyst Electrolyte 5 Types Alkali, Molten Carbonate (MCFC), Phosphoric Acid (PAFC), Proton Exchanging Membrane (PEM), Solid Oxide (SOFC)
How do they work? http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fcv_PEM.shtml
Background Information http://www.fuelcelltod ay.com/about-fuel- cells/history
Science and Technology Transportation Power Cars, vans, trucks, busses, trains, trams, ferries, small boats, small aircraft Portable Power Military applications, small personal electronics, large personal electronics Stationary Power Replace power grids
Advantages Higher efficiency Silently operate Less pollution Lessens dependency on foreign oil Hydrogen is accessible Military benefits
Advantages Longer operation time Easy maintenance No “memory effect” when getting fueled
Disadvantages Expensive Difficulty transporting hydrogen Large in size Lack of current infrastructure
Economics Fuel Cell Cost Migration Path Currently more than $4,000 per kW Platinum currently $44.34 per gram
Government Hydrogen Fuel Initiative 2003 President Bush $1.2 Billion for research to develop clean, hydrogen fueled automobiles Less dependency on foreign oil Attempt for large numbers of Americans to use hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020
Government Hydrogen Fuel Initiative "A simple chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen generates energy, which can be used to power a car producing only water, not exhaust fumes. With a new national commitment, our scientists and engineers will overcome obstacles to taking these cars from laboratory to showroom so that the first car driven by a child born today could be powered by hydrogen, and pollution-free. Join me in this important innovation to make our air significantly cleaner, and our country much less dependent on foreign sources of energy.” - President Bush, State of the Union Address, January 28, 2003.
Social Less dependence on oil Less pollution Less dependence on foreign countries Fuel Cell Vehicles for future Basis of future automobile constructional design changes
Future Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) Pure hydrogen (liquid or gas) Fuel cell stack PEMFC current most studied fuel cell type Problems Complicated hydrogen storage (high costs, large volume) No transportation oriented distribution options Advantages High electric efficiency Zero emissions using hydrogen Mechanical simplicity (less noise, less maintenance)
Future Honda FCX Clarity Emits only water vapor Propelled by electricity Generated by hydrogen fuel http://automobiles.honda.com/fcx-clarity/ BMW 7 Series Large Sedan Currently in trials of a new 6.0 Liter V12 gasoline hydrogen powered model of the 7 series
FAQs How large would fuel cells be in homes? 5kW, size of a washing machine When will we see common usage of FCVs? Many manufacturers are set to commercially develop fuel cell vehicles in 2015 Who are the world leaders in fuel cell research? The US, Japan, and Germany are ahead in worldwide fuel cell infrastructure and development What type of infrastructure is necessary for FCVs? California: 68 stations statewide needed for hydrogen refueling
Works Cited http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/annual_progress12_fuelcells.html http://americanhistory.si.edu/fuelcells/intro.htm http://www.engsoc.org/~bbarnes/temp/societal_impacts_fuel_cell.pdf http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/fuel-cell-profile/ http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fcv_PEM.shtml http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/about-fuel-cells/history http://www.altenergy.org/renewables/fuel_cells.html http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/2/FUEL_CELL_INFORMATION/FCexplained/challenges.aspx http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/2/FUEL_CELL_INFORMATION/FCexplained/migpath.aspx http://automobiles.honda.com/fcx-clarity/ http://www.green-technology.org/green_technology_magazine/index.php?cID=134 http://climate.nasa.gov/effects
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