Presentation on theme: "A presentation for the “Governance and Oil Extraction in the Niger Delta” Seminar jointly organised by the IDEARS Centre (London South Bank University)"— Presentation transcript:
A presentation for the “Governance and Oil Extraction in the Niger Delta” Seminar jointly organised by the IDEARS Centre (London South Bank University) & the Ethiope Foundation, June 21 st 2012
Analysis of the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) Report 2011 on environmental assessment of Ogoni Land Extrapolate of the health hazards resulting from the oil extraction in Niger delta Examination of Benzene pollution incident in water (and air) as the distinctly main the true main health risk to Niger Delta residents Presentation of remedial solutions the health hazards identified.
The incidence pollution health risks in the Niger Delta is an acute “emergency problem”: Urgent action that is urgently required to stem benzene toxicity afflicting Niger Delta residents
To assess the level of health hazard risks to Niger Delta residents due their daily exposure to benzene To develop new / introduce existing strategies and techniques that can remedy / mitigate the risk of exposure of Niger Delta residents to benzene To develop and implement a robust health manage structure as a starter program
Sources of human exposure to benzene contamination: Drinking water (from borehole water, well water, rain water & stream / river water) Outdoor and indoor air Dermal (skin) contact with (mainly ) surface water (e.g. stream / river water)
Sampled well Benzene (μg/l) 001-005-BH-1029,280 001-005-BH-103161 001-005-BW-1007,090 001-005-MED-1018,370 001-005-GW-1047,140 Nigerian Drinking water3 EPA Maximum contaminant level goals0 EPA Maximum contaminant level5 UNEP assessment of water from wells and boreholes in Ogoni vs standards
Sampling location referenceTotal hydrocarbons in microgram/litre 001-001218 009-010716 100-00174 101-001132 104-0037,420 Examples from UNEP report from Ogoni-30 sites tested, benzene was 3/5 per weight of hydrocarbons
Outdoor air samplesBenzene microgram/m3 UNEP report in ogoni0.155-48.2 California 19962.26 From a cigarette emission30-40 It was emission from cigarette that caused cigarette smoking to be banned from public places
Niger Delta residents are exposed to benzene at levels of 1000 and more above the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline No safe concentration of benzene can be recommended because it is genotoxic and carcinogenic (WHO) All over the world benzene/hydrocarbon levels in drinking water are monitored and if found above MCL (5microgram/l), the water is treated to remove benzene
Bone marrow damage –aplastic anaemia Changes in circulating blood cells Developmental and reproductive effects Alterations of immune response Nerve damage Cancer
Excess life time cancer risk Corresponding concentration of benzene in the air(WHO)in microgram/lm3 1 in 10,00017 1 in 100,0001.7 1 in 1000,0000.17 A survey by UNEP to evaluate the effect of the pollution on the health of the people was inconclusive-records unavailable
1. Ensure that all drinking water wells where hydrocarbons found are fitted with filters to remove hydrocarbons. 2. Provide adequate sources of drinking water to those households whose drinking water supply is impacted 3. People who have been consuming water with benzene over 900 times the WHO guideline are recorded on a medical registry and their health status assessed and followed up 4. Introduce information initiative around all the sites identified as having contamination exceeding intervention values warning the community not to walk through or engage in any other activities at these sites
6. Introduce information initiatives that warn / prohibit residents from engaging in activities such as fish, swim or bathing in surface waters that identified to be polluted by benzene 7. Undertake household surveys to determine risks of past and exposure to contaminated. In addition, each household will receive personalised advice on the risks of benzene contamination / exposure 8. Mount a public awareness campaign to warn individuals who engage artisanal refining oil of the immanent risks of such activities
Deployment of well equipped medical centres Emphasis to screen, track and manage benzene toxicity in water / human exposure Set up agency to coordinate the removal benzene from potable water Introduce carbon filtration using aeration towers.
The Ethiope Foundation (EF) has put together a comprehensive plan to address problems and implement the strategies / techniques we recommend for health risk mitigation EF has built a number of working alliances with relevant organisations in the UK and Nigeria focused on eliminating health risks oil pollution to Niger Delta residents EF is also building working alliances with informal traditional groups in the Niger Delta The progress of the EF work will be reported in the Ethiope Quarterly to be launched in December 2012 and on our website - www.ethiope.org