Presentation on theme: "Kabwe is the second largest city in Zambia. 150 kilometres north of the nation’s capital, Lusaka. ≈ 300 000 of population 58% of the population are living."— Presentation transcript:
Kabwe is the second largest city in Zambia. 150 kilometres north of the nation’s capital, Lusaka. ≈ 300 000 of population 58% of the population are living in extreme poverty. Dependent on the mineral industry which represent 15% of national GDP. (Gross Domestic Product)
1902 - Rich deposits of lead was discovered and smelting operation was set up to process the ore. 1904 - Commenced operations. 1906- Reached full-scale production. 3 rd June 1994 – Officially closed down due to operations becoming uneconomic at that time.
SMELTING ORE VEINS Lead concentrations as high as 20% Copper Zinc Lead Cadmium DENSE FUMES POISONOUS Metallic Pollutants
Metallic pollutants are significantly toxic even in very small amounts. This is because of their non- biodegradability and cumulative nature. ≈ 90 years of operating without pollution laws regulating hazardous emissions from the mine and smalter plant. Government did not addressed the potential danger of lead to the workers and the citizens. Precipitation due to mining activities caused soil contamination i.e. poison the city extended to 20km radius from the smelting and mining site.
Soil Poisoning Soil Water Toxic polluted Human Health Health Risk May cause Death
Caused Poison and toxicity from hazardous concentrations of lead in the soil and water. Soil : Soil is heavily contaminated with the highly poisonous metal. Everything from the dust (especially dry dust) on plates is completely contaminated with lead. Flood left toxic soil. Dry dust, when combined with any wind, creates air that is filled with toxic heavy metals. Water: mostly lead tailings making their way into the local water supply ( use for drinking and bathing ) Poisoning Soil (contaminated) in Kabwe Toxic Creek in Kabwe
1) A Zambian community faces serious health risks as a result of lead mining activities in their area. Millions of human lives were effected (by frequently exposed to lead by inhaling dust in contaminated air ) Children (Play in dust): exposure to lead before or after birth could affect their growth and development, leading to deficiencies in height, weight and intelligence. Adults (Working): damage to the central nervous system and severely weaken fingers, joints, wrists and ankles. 2) Increasing number of Death Blood level (lead concentration in blood): 20 and above, resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, leading to muscle spasms,kidney damage, slowed mental development, and severe cases brain damage. 10 are considered unhealthy and levels in excess of 120 can often lead to death. On average, children’s blood levels in Kabwe are 5 to 10 times the allowable EPA maximum. (300 μg/dL ) Zambian citizen health problem
Enforcement of appropriate environmental rules and regulations Installation of water quality monitoring system Restoration of the water and sewage treatment system Proper management and maintenance of mine waste dumps
Isolation Excavation of the contaminated surface soil Capping of the contaminated areas Provision of vegetation cover Liming
Improve public awareness Better access to clean water Relocate neighbourhoods