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Chapter 4 Earth’s Resources. 4.1 Energy & Mineral Resources.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Earth’s Resources. 4.1 Energy & Mineral Resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Earth’s Resources

2 4.1 Energy & Mineral Resources

3 Renewable vs. Nonrenewable Resources  A renewable resource can be replenished over a short period of time (Months, years, or decades)  A nonrenewable resource takes millions of years to form and accumulate

4 Examples Renewable  Plants for food  Animals for food  Natural Fibers for clothing  Trees for lumber/paper  Water  Wind  Sun

5 Non - Renewable  When the current supply run out there will not be anymore  Why is this a problem?  Fossil Fuels  Coal  Oil (Petroleum)  Natural Gas

6 Fossil Fuels  Any hydrocarbon that may be used as a source of energy  Coal  Primarily used to generate electricity  Scars the land  Dangerous  Air pollution (High Sulfate)  Petroleum  Natural Gas  Oil trap – geological structure that allows large amounts of fluids to accumulate  Stops upward movement of oil and gas

7 Tar Sands & Oil Shale  Some energy experts believe that fuels coming from tar sands and oil shales could be good substitutes for lowering petroleum supplies  Tar sands are mixtures of clay & sand combined with water 7 black tar  The oil in tar sands are not easily pumped out  Problems  Land disturbance  Lots of water  Contaminated water

8  Oil Shale is a rock that contains a waxy mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen.  Oil Shale is heated to vaporize kerogen  Kerogen vapors are processed to remove impurities  Around half of the world’s supply is in the Green River Formation of Colorado, Utah, & Wyoming  Problem? YES b/c of lower water amounts in the Green River Formation

9 Formation of Mineral Deposits  Important mineral deposits form by igneous processes & from hydrothermal solutions  Igneous processes produce important deposits of metallic minerals  Hydrothermal solutions generate important ore deposits  Placer Deposits form when eroded heavy materials settle fast from moving water while less dense particles remain still and settle

10 Nonmetallic Mineral Resources  Extracted & processed either for the nonmetallic elements they contain or for their physical & chemical properties  Ex) Fluorite & Limestone  Two Groups  Building Materials  Industrial Minerals  Not abundant as building materials

11 4.2 Alternate Energy Sources

12 Solar Energy  2 advantages – “fuel” is free & non-polluting  Passive Solar Collectors (south-facing windows)  Roof top devices  Heat water  Photovoltaic (Solar) Cells = electricity  Problems?  Equipment is not cheap  Supplemental unit needed  

13 Nuclear Energy  Nuclear fission, the nuclei of heavy atoms are bombarded with neutrons. The nuclei split into smaller nuclei & emit neutrons and heat energy  Cost is high  Dangerous  Accidents with radioactive materials  exvaCMWA exvaCMWA

14 Wind Energy  Sailing Ships  Windmills  1980 Federal Govn’t started wind program systems  Estimate that the next years, wind power could meet btw 5-10 % of the country’s demand for electricity  HfMCw-FI HfMCw-FI

15 Geothermal Energy  Hot water is used directly for heating and to turn turbines to generate electric power  Underground reservoirs of steam and hot water are tapped into  Not expected to provide a large % of the growing needs for energy  ZMpQ ZMpQ  vBVso vBVso

16 Hydroelectric Power  Falling Water = energy  The water held in a reservoir behind a dam is a form of stored energy that can be released through the dam to produce electric power  Water is renewable but the dam has a limited lifetime  wQtmGQ wQtmGQ

17 Tidal Power  Ocean’s energy potential is still untapped  Harnessed by constructing a dam across the mouth of a bay or estuary in coastal areas. The strong in – out flow that results drive the turbines & electric generators  CzRE3Gw CzRE3Gw

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