Presentation on theme: " Organic chemistry: branch of chemistry focused on hydrocarbons and their by-products Can organic compounds be produced in a lab? Is petroleum an."— Presentation transcript:
Organic chemistry: branch of chemistry focused on hydrocarbons and their by-products Can organic compounds be produced in a lab? Is petroleum an organic compound? Yes and yes! Now we know that organic compounds can be produced without any help from living things
Circle items that are made from petroleum
Watch the Fuel-less Video.
Were there any items that you didn’t know were made from petroleum?
____________________: compounds made of hydrogen and carbon Organic compounds have a “________________” or carbon atoms linked together to form a chain that other atoms are attached to These hydrocarbon chains have covalent bonds. What is a covalent bond? hydrocarbons backbone
Fractional Distillation Each compound has unique intermolecular forces that allow it to be separated
BP= 59 o CBP= 151 o C Why? Longer chain, more dispersion forces, stronger intermolecular force, higher boiling point
Hydrocarbon chain with all SINGLE covalent bonds General Formula: C n H 2n+2 Examples: NameFormula MethaneCH 4 Propane C 5 H 12
NameFormula MethaneCH 4 EthaneC2H6C2H6 PropaneC3H8C3H8 ButaneC 4 H 10 PentaneC 5 H 12 HexaneC 6 H 14 HeptaneC 7 H 16 OctaneC 8 H 18 NonaneC 9 H 20 DecaneC 10 H 22
NAMEPentane FORMULAC 5 H 12 C 7 H 16 STRUCTURAL FORMULA CONDENSED FORMULA CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3
An alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon. Saturated means: Each carbon atom is completely surrounded by single covalent bonds. Example:
Hydrocarbon chain with at least one DOUBLE bond General Formula: C n H 2n Examples: NameFormula EtheneC2H4C2H4 Butene C 7 H 14
Hydrocarbon chain with at least one TRIPLE bonds General Formula: C n H 2n–2 Examples: NameFormula PropyneC3H4C3H4 Pentyne C 8 H 14
Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. Unsaturated means: There is at least one double or triple bond in the molecule, making a carbon have less than four surrounding atoms. Example:
Unsaturated hydrocarbons are more reactive than saturated hydrocarbons. Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Increases in reactivity
Compounds that have the same chemical formula but a different arrangement of particles. Isomers of Butane C 4 H 10
NO! Lewis Structures are 2D Models are 3D
2D Representation 3D Representation
1. Draw the Lewis Structure 2. Build the Model 3. Bonds in the plane are straight lines Bonds behind the paper are dotted lines Bonds coming toward you are bolded lines NameLewis Structure3D Representation Methane
Burning petroleum provides nearly ___________ of the total U.S. energy needs. Most petroleum is used as a __________. Converted to ______________, petroleum powers millions of U.S. automobiles. _____% of all petroleum is used as fuel. Only about ___% is used for producing new substances. half fuel gasoline 89 7
When hydrocarbons burn, they react with ___________ to form _________________ gas and _______________. How long will it take for natural processes to replace used petroleum fuel? This is because petroleum is a ____________________ resource. oxygen carbon dioxide water vapor MILLIONS OF YEARS!!! nonrenewable
Nonrenewable resource Increases CO 2 emissions that adds to pollution
Commonly known as builder molecules Functional Group: an atom or group of atoms that has characteristic properties to organic compounds
Molecule with an –OH group attached to a carbon atom General formula: R-OH Examples: ◦ CH 3 -OHMethanol ◦ CH 3 CH 2 -OHEthanol
Rubbing Alcohol Hair Gel Cough Medicine
One oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon chains, one on each end Name ends in “ether” General formula:Example: Dimethyl Ether
Starter Fluid Anise Seed used for bread and cookies Some Cosmetics
Contains 2 oxygen atoms One oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom and a second oxygen is single bonded to the same carbon atom Name ends in “oic acid” General formula:Example: Ethanoic acid
Some Fruits Vinegar Coconut
Contains 2 oxygen atoms One oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom and a second oxygen is single bonded to the same carbon atom Name ends in “oate” General formula:Example: Methyl ethanoate
Bananas Flowers Oranges Responsible for different smells of substances!
Common Petrochemicals: Detergents Pesticides Pharmaceuticals Cosmetics Raw materials for production of other synthetic substances such as plastics ◦ Plastics include: paints, fabrics, rubber, insulation materials, foams, adhesives, molding, and structural materials
Reactivity: Single bonds < double bonds < triple bonds Addition reaction: reaction at the double or triple bond within an organic molecule The water molecule “adds” to the double- bonded carbon atoms by placing an H- on one carbon and an –OH group on the other. C C H H H H + H-OH C C H H H H H OH
Polymer: large molecule typically composed of 500 – 20,000 or more repeating units These repeating units are called monomers.
Polymers formed in this type of reaction are called addition polymers.
The atoms which compose the monomers dictate the properties of the polymer. These polymers are often altered to meet a variety of needs and to produce a multitude of products. Structure influences the Function!
Condensation Reactions: Involve the loss of simple molecules such as water when monomer units join.
The functional groups of the acid and alcohol combine to form a water molecule. The remaining atoms join to form an ester.