Organic chemistry: branch of chemistry focused on hydrocarbons and their by-products Can organic compounds be produced in a lab? Is petroleum an organic compound? Yes and yes! Now we know that organic compounds can be produced without any help from living things
Were there any items that you didn’t know were made from petroleum?
____________________: compounds made of hydrogen and carbon Organic compounds have a “________________” or carbon atoms linked together to form a chain that other atoms are attached to These hydrocarbon chains have covalent bonds. What is a covalent bond? hydrocarbons backbone
Fractional Distillation Each compound has unique intermolecular forces that allow it to be separated
1. Draw the Lewis Structure 2. Build the Model 3. Bonds in the plane are straight lines Bonds behind the paper are dotted lines Bonds coming toward you are bolded lines NameLewis Structure3D Representation Methane
Burning petroleum provides nearly ___________ of the total U.S. energy needs. Most petroleum is used as a __________. Converted to ______________, petroleum powers millions of U.S. automobiles. _____% of all petroleum is used as fuel. Only about ___% is used for producing new substances. half fuel gasoline 89 7
When hydrocarbons burn, they react with ___________ to form _________________ gas and _______________. How long will it take for natural processes to replace used petroleum fuel? This is because petroleum is a ____________________ resource. oxygen carbon dioxide water vapor MILLIONS OF YEARS!!! nonrenewable
Nonrenewable resource Increases CO 2 emissions that adds to pollution
One oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon chains, one on each end Name ends in “ether” General formula:Example: Dimethyl Ether
Starter Fluid Anise Seed used for bread and cookies Some Cosmetics
Contains 2 oxygen atoms One oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom and a second oxygen is single bonded to the same carbon atom Name ends in “oic acid” General formula:Example: Ethanoic acid
Contains 2 oxygen atoms One oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom and a second oxygen is single bonded to the same carbon atom Name ends in “oate” General formula:Example: Methyl ethanoate
Bananas Flowers Oranges Responsible for different smells of substances!
Common Petrochemicals: Detergents Pesticides Pharmaceuticals Cosmetics Raw materials for production of other synthetic substances such as plastics ◦ Plastics include: paints, fabrics, rubber, insulation materials, foams, adhesives, molding, and structural materials
Reactivity: Single bonds < double bonds < triple bonds Addition reaction: reaction at the double or triple bond within an organic molecule The water molecule “adds” to the double- bonded carbon atoms by placing an H- on one carbon and an –OH group on the other. C C H H H H + H-OH C C H H H H H OH
Polymer: large molecule typically composed of 500 – 20,000 or more repeating units These repeating units are called monomers.
Polymers formed in this type of reaction are called addition polymers.
The atoms which compose the monomers dictate the properties of the polymer. These polymers are often altered to meet a variety of needs and to produce a multitude of products. Structure influences the Function!
Condensation Reactions: Involve the loss of simple molecules such as water when monomer units join.
The functional groups of the acid and alcohol combine to form a water molecule. The remaining atoms join to form an ester.