2OBJECTIVES 1. Identify how foam works 2. Discuss all of the different classifications of foam3. Discuss the different types of foam available on the market4. Talk about the foam we have here with an in-depth look at F-5005. How do we use foam6. Use of the new foam system on E-25227. Go out and create some foam using 2522 and portable eductor
3Foam Vocabulary Burnback Resistance - The ability of a foam blanket to resist direct flame impingement such as would beevident in a partially extinguished petroleum fire.Polar Solvent - A liquid whose molecules possess apermanent electric moment. Examples are amines,ethers, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones. Infire fighting, any flammable liquid which destroys regularfoam is generally referred to as a polar solvent (oris water miscible).Drainage Rate - The rate at which solution drains froma foam.Polymeric Membrane - A thin, durable, cohesive skinformed on a polar solvent fuel surface, protecting thefoam bubbles from destruction by the fuel; a precipitationwhich occurs when a polar solvent foam comesin contact with hydrophilic fuels such as isopropanol,ethanol and other polar solvents.Expansion - The ratio of volume of foam formed to thevolume of solution used to generate the foam; for example,an 8 expansion means 800 gallons of foamfrom 100 gallons of solution.Foam Liquid or Concentrate - The foaming agent formixing with the appropriate amounts of water and airto produce finished foam.Proportioner - The device where foam liquid and waterare mixed to form foam solution.Foam Solution - A homogeneous mixture of water andfoam liquid.Foam Stability - The relative ability of a foam toWithstand spontaneous collapse or breakdown from external causes, such as heat or chemical reaction.
4HOW FOAM WORks S S S S S C C C S S S S S P P Foam helps us put out fires by 4 different means…..SSSSSCCCmotheringoolingSSSSSPPeperatingenetrating
6Classifications of Foam By Type of MaterialMan Made Or NaturalClass APaper, wood, textiles, rubber, etc.Class BFlammable liquids, gasoline, dieselClass C, D, KC- electricalD- Flammable metalsK- Restaurant grease, oilsProtein means natural.Foams can be a mixture of man made and naturalExpansion RatioEither Hi, Medium, Or LoLo = Up to 20:1Med from 20:1 – 200:1High from 200:1 – 1,000:1
7Different Types of Foams On The Market Protein FoamFluoro-protein FoamMay be used in 3% or 6% mixtureProtein basedLow expansionGood re-ignition (burn-back) resistanceExcellent water retentionHigh heat resistance and stabilityMay be used with fresh or salt waterPerformance can be affected by freezing and thawingConcentrate can be freeze protected with anti-freezeNot as mobile or fluid on fuel surface as other low-expansion foamsPrimary use on Class B fires involving hydrocarbonsUsed to protect flammable and combustible liquids in storage, transport, and processingMay be used in 3% or 6% mixtureProtein and synthetic based; derived from protein foamFuel sheddingLong-term vapor suppressionGood water retentionExcellent, long-lasting heat resistancePerformance not affected by freezing and thawingMaintains low viscosity at low temperaturesCan be freeze protected with anti-freezeMay be used with fresh or salt waterNon-toxic and biodegradable after dilutionGood mobility and fluidity on fuel surfacePre-mixable for short periods of timePrimary used for hydrocarbon vapor suppressionUsed for subsurface application to hydrocarbon fuel storage tanks and extinguishing in-depth crude petroleum or other hydrocarbon fuel fires
8Different Types of Foams On The Market Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AR-AFFF)May be used in 1%, 3% or 6% mixtureSynthetic basedGood penetrating capabilitiesSpreads vapor-sealing film over and floats on hydrocarbon fuelsCan be used through non-aerating nozzlesPerformance may be adversely affected by freezing and storingHas good low-temperature viscosityCan be freeze protected with anti-freezeCan be used with fresh or salt waterCan be premixedPrimary use in controlling and extinguishing Class B firesUsed in handling land and sea crash rescues involving spills, extinguishing most transportation-related fires, wetting penetrating Class A fuels, and securing un-ignited hydrocarbon spillsMay be used in 3% or 6% mixtureAFFF concentrate to which polymer addedCan be used on both polar solvents and hydrocarbon fuels (used on polar solvents at 6% solution and on hydrocarbon fuels at 3% solution)Forms a membrane on polar solvent fuels that prevents destruction of the foam blanketForms same aqueous film on hydrocarbon fuels as AFFFFast flame knockdownGood burn-back resistance on both fuelsNot easily premixedPrimary use on fires or spills of both hydrocarbon and polar solvent fuels
9Different Types of Foams On The Market Film Forming Flouroprotein Foam (FFFP)High Expansion FoamUsed at expansion ratios of greater than 200:1For use on large enclosed areas, basements, ships hulls, etc.Can be used on Class A materialsFFFP’s are a combination of fluorochemical surfactantswith protein foam.They are designed to combine thefuel tolerance and burnback resistance of a fluoroprotein foam with an increased knockdown power.FFFP foams release an aqueous film on the surface of the hydrocarbon fuel.
10Proportioning Equipment Elkhart Brass Model 240 In-Line Eductor
12Proportioning Equipment Akron Brass Model 768 Foam TubeFor Ratios Of Up To 12:1
13Other Equipment on the market Foam Nozzle TubesHigh Exp. Foam TubeBy-Pass Inline EductorFoam Nozzle
14How much foam will you need ???? Rates of application for foamHow much foam will you need ????To determine the amount of foam you need, use the following formulas.Determine area of spill in square feet.Multiply that number by either 0.1 for hydrocarbon spills and 0.2 for polar solvents. This will give you the required flow in GPM’s.Take that number and multiply it by the percentage of foam you are using, either 1%, 3%, 6%, etc. This number will tell you how much concentrate you will need per minute.Finally, take the answer from number 3 and multiply by 15 (the number of minutes NFPA requires as a minimum application time) and that will give you the total number of gallons of foam concentrate required.
15How much foam will you need ???? Rates of application for foamHow much foam will you need ????For HydrocarbonsNFPA recommended application rate for Film FormingType Foams equals 0.1 gpm (foam solution)per square foot of fire with a MINIMUM RUN TIMEOF 15 MINUTES.Examples of application rates for Hydrocarbons:AN AREA OF 2000 SQUARE FEET OF REGULARGASOLINE IS BURNING. YOU HAVE UNIVERSALPLUS 3% / 6% FOAM AVAILABLE FORSECURING THE FLAME.• .10 gpm/sq.ft. X 2000 sq.ft. = 200 gpm of FOAMSOLUTION REQUIRED.• .03 X 200 gpm = 6 gallons of 3% CONCENTRATEREQUIRED per minute.• 6 gal. X 15 minutes = 90 gallons of 3% AFFFCONCENTRATE REQUIRED to control, extinguishand initially secure a 2000 sq.ft. hydrocarbonfire.
16Rates of application for foam How much flammable liquid spill can we cover with our current foam supply ????• For hydrocarbons:Area = foam concentrate reserve X aeration factor of your nozzle divided by orArea = gallons of foam X 8/0.045• For polar liquids: Area = gallons of foam X 8/0.18As an example, if you have 20 gallons of foam concentrate and you have a gasoline spill,how big of an area can you blanket with foam?1. Area = 20 gallons X 8/0.0452. Area = 3, square feet or 59.6’ X 59.6’
17Procedure for application of foam Determine the type of liquid spilled, either a hydrocarbon or polar solventChoose the foam that would best fit the situation.Estimate the amount of fuel spilled in square feetUse the appropriate formula to estimate the amount of foam required. If additional foam is required, make the appropriate calls to get more foam.Set-up the foam operation. Determine if eductor will be on the pump discharge or somewhere else in line.Determine if an aspirating nozzle is required. For F-500, it is generally not required.Apply foam using appropriate technique for 15 minutes.Assess the situation after 15 minutes. Use a combustible gas meter to monitor for explosive atmospheres. Apply more foam if necessary.
18Connecting directly to pump discharge. Setting up the foam operationConnecting directly to pump discharge.Connect eductor to discharge outlet of apparatus then connect hose to discharge of eductor.The eductor must be used with a nozzle having the same rated flow (i.e. 95 gpm nozzle with a 95 gpm eductor)Adjust the metering device to the correct setting for the required percentage of concentrate.Check by-pass valve. If eductor is the by-pass type, be sure that the valve is in the FOAM position (closed). If the valve is in the WATER position, eductor will not pick up foam concentrate.Open discharge and set proper flowing pressure. Eductor inlet pressure of 200 psi is required for accurate proportioning of concentrate into the water stream and efficient nozzle performance. Be sure that the nozzle is fully open.Insert pick-up tube into foam supply. There will be a dely of 12 – 15 seconds before the foam solution will be discharged at the nozzle in a typical system.The hose lay between the eductor and the nozzle must not exceed the recommended length for the combination of flow rate and hose size being used.
26Ansulite 3%-6% Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam 3 Actions First, an aqueous film is formed in the case of a conventionalhydrocarbon fuel, or a polymeric membrane in the case of a polarsolvent fuelSecond, regardless of the fuel type, a foam blanket is formed which excludes oxygen and from which drains the liquids that form the film or the polymeric membrane.Third, the water content of thefoam produces a cooling effect.
27Ansulite 3%-6% Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film Forming Foam Just like AFFF but a polymer is addedPseudoplastic and thixotropic, product will be gel-like until a shear force is applied and then the product will flow, similar to ketchupCan be used on class A firesCan be used with or without air aspirating nozzle.The minimum and maximum usable temperature for ANSULITE ARC3% or 6% AR-AFFF Concentrate in this equipment is 35 °F (2 °C) to120 °F (49 °C) respectively.
28F-500 FoamDoes not fall into any previous foam category
29Yes! Yes! Yes! What can we use F-500 on? Class A Fires ? 0.5 % – 1.0 %Class B Fires ?Yes!Class D Fires ?1 % - 3 %1 % for spills up to and including 50 gallons3 % for spills over 50 gallons (Hydrocarbons)6 % for polar solventsYes!
30How does F-500 work?Most foams create a blanket over the liquid surface, but F-500 does not work that way.F-500 “encapsulates” the liquid in what is called a “micelle encapsulator”. This renders the flammable liquid un-flammable for the duration of the incident, and makes transfer of the material safer.F-500 still cools the flammable liquid to the point it does not give off flammable vapors.It also reduces the surface tension of water for easier penetration of class A materialsIt is said to absorb heat as wellCan be used without an expansion nozzle and with a smooth bore nozzle.
31F-500 Proportions One 5 gallon container in a 500 gallon tank = 1% For use on hydrocarbon fires less than 50 gallonsPre-mix in tank and run off tank only until tank is empty, then re-mix for additional foam if needed.500 GallonTank500 GallonTankThree 5-Gallon containers in a 500 gallon tank = 3%For use on hydrocarbon and polar solvent fires greater than 50 gallonsPre-mix in tank and run off tank until tank is empty, then re-mix for additional foam if needed.
33TROUBLESHOOTING1) Make sure nozzle is always FULLY opened during operation.2) Assure that nozzle and eductor GPM settings are equal.3) Check for kinks in hose lines.4) Check for adequate pump pressure.5) Check for air-tight seal around pick-up tube/hose connections.6) Check for kinks or blockage in pick-up tube and hose lines7) Check metering valve to make sure it is open8) Check for clogged nozzle.9) Is nozzle elevated too high above eductor10) Check the check ball (listen for rattle, look for flow into concentrate bucket).
34GASAHOLS-MTBE-OTHER OXYGENATED FUEL SOURCES METHANOLETHANOLMTBE-METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER -> made from isobutylene, a refinery waste product which is normally recycled or burned, and methanol which is produced from natural gas. It now has thelargest share of the oxygenate market.TERTIARY AMYL METHYL ETHER (TAME),ETHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (ETBE)DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER (DIPE).As long as the mixture is not greater than 10 %, use standard hydrocarbon percentages of foam concentrate