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Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 14 — Fire Streams Firefighter II.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 14 — Fire Streams Firefighter II."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5 th Edition Chapter 14 — Fire Streams Firefighter II

2 14–1 Chapter 14 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to effectively apply fire fighting foam using various foam types, concentrates, and delivery devices following the policies and procedures set forth by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).

3 Firefighter II 14–2 Specific Objectives 1.Describe the suppression characteristics of fire fighting foam. 2.Define terms associated with types of foam and the foam-making process. 3.Discuss how foam is generated. (Continued)

4 Firefighter II 14–3 Specific Objectives 4.Discuss foam concentrates. 5.Describe methods by which foam may be proportioned. 6.Discuss foam proportioners. 7.Discuss foam delivery devices. (Continued)

5 Firefighter II 14–4 Specific Objectives 8.List reasons for failure to generate foam or for generating poor-quality foam. 9.Describe foam application techniques. (Continued)

6 Firefighter II 14–5 Specific Objectives 10.Discuss hazards associated with foam concentrates. 11.Place a foam line in service — In-line eductor. (Skill Sheet 14-II-1)

7 Firefighter II 14–6 Ways Fire Fighting Foam Extinguishes/Prevents Fire Separating Cooling Smothering Penetrating

8 Firefighter II 14–7 Terms Associated With Foam Foam concentrate Foam proportioner Foam solution Foam (finished foam)

9 Firefighter II 14–8 How Foam is Generated Foams used today are of mechanical type and before use must be –Proportioned –Aerated (Continued)

10 Firefighter II 14–9 How Foam is Generated Elements needed to produce fire fighting foam (Continued) – Foam concentrate – Water – Air – Mechanical agitation

11 Firefighter II 14–10 How Foam is Generated All elements must be present and blended in correct ratios Aeration produces foam bubbles to form effective foam blanket

12 Firefighter II 14–11 Foam Expansion The increase in volume of foam when aerated Method of aerating results in varying degrees of expansion Types of foam

13 Firefighter II 14–12 Foam Concentrates — General Considerations Foam concentrates must match fuel to which applied Class A foams not designed to extinguish Class B fires Class B foams designed solely for hydrocarbon fires will not extinguish polar solvent fires

14 Firefighter II 14–13 Class A Foam Increasingly used in both wildland and structural fire fighting Special formulation of hydrocarbon surfactants (Continued)

15 Firefighter II 14–14 Class A Foam Aerated Class A foam coats, insulates fuels, preventing pyrolysis and ignition May be used with variety of nozzles

16 Firefighter II 14–15 Class B Foam Used to prevent ignition of or extinguish fires involving flammable and combustible liquids Used to suppress vapors from unignited spills of these liquids Several types of Class B foam concentrates available (Continued)

17 Firefighter II 14–16 Class B Foam Manufactured from synthetic or protein base May be proportioned into the fire stream through fixed system, apparatus- mounted system, or by portable foam proportioning equipment (Continued)

18 Firefighter II 14–17 Class B Foam Foams such as AFFF and FFFP foam may be applied with standard fog nozzles or air-aspirating foam nozzles Rate of application depends on several factors (Continued)

19 Firefighter II 14–18 Class B Foam Unignited spills do not require same application rates as ignited spills To be most effective, blanket of foam 4 inches (100 mm) thick should be applied to fuel surface

20 Firefighter II 14–19 Specific Application Foams Numerous types of foam available for specific applications Properties of foams vary

21 Firefighter II 14–20 Proportioning Mixing of water with foam concentrate to form foam solution Most concentrates can be mixed with fresh/salt water (Continued)

22 Firefighter II 14–21 Proportioning For maximum effectiveness, foam concentrates must be proportioned at designated percentage Most fire fighting foams intended to be mixed with 94 to 99.9 percent water

23 Firefighter II 14–22 Proportioning Methods Induction Injection Batch-mixing Premixing

24 Firefighter II 14–23 Foam Proportioners — General Considerations May be portable or apparatus-mounted Operate by one of two basic principles

25 Firefighter II 14–24 Portable Foam Proportioners Simplest, most common form of proportioning devices In-line foam eductors Foam nozzle eductors

26 Firefighter II 14–25 Apparatus-Mounted Proportioners Mounted on structural, industrial, wildland, and aircraft rescue and fire fighting apparatus, as well as on fire boats Three types

27 Firefighter II 14–26 Compressed-Air Foam Systems (CAFS) Newer structural engines are equipped with CAFS (Continued)

28 Firefighter II 14–27 Compressed-Air Foam Systems (CAFS) Standard centrifugal pump supplies water, direct-injection foam- proportioning system mixes foam solution with water on discharge side of pump, onboard air compressor adds air to mix before discharging from engine (Continued)

29 Firefighter II 14–28 Compressed-Air Foam Systems (CAFS) Unlike other systems, hoseline contains finished foam Advantages Disadvantages

30 Firefighter II 14–29 Handline Nozzles Solid-bore nozzles Fog nozzles Air-aspirating foam nozzles

31 Firefighter II 14–30 Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Generating Devices Produce foam that is semistable with high air content Medium-expansion foam High-expansion foam Water-aspirating type nozzle Mechanical blower generator

32 Firefighter II 14–31 Reasons for Poor-Quality Foam/ Failure to Generate Foam Eductor, nozzle flow ratings do not match so foam concentrate cannot induct into fire stream Air leaks at fittings cause loss of suction Improper cleaning of proportioning equipment causes clogged foam passages (Continued)

33 Firefighter II 14–32 Reasons for Poor-Quality Foam/ Failure to Generate Foam Nozzle not fully open, restricting water flow Hose lay on discharge side of eductor is too long Hose is kinked and stops flow (Continued)

34 Firefighter II 14–33 Reasons for Poor-Quality Foam/ Failure to Generate Foam Nozzle is too far above eductor Mixing different types of foam concentrate in same tank results in mixture too viscous to pass through eductor

35 Firefighter II 14–34 Roll-On Foam Application Method Directs foam stream on ground near front edge of burning liquid spill Foam rolls across surface of fuel (Continued)

36 Firefighter II 14–35 Roll-On Foam Application Method Firefighters continue to apply foam until spreads across entire surface of fuel and fire extinguished Used only on pool of liquid fuel on open ground

37 Firefighter II 14–36 Bank-Down Foam Application Method May be employed when elevated object is near/ within area of burning pool of liquid or unignited liquid spill Object may be wall, tank shell, similar vertical structure (Continued)

38 Firefighter II 14–37 Bank-Down Foam Application Method Foam stream directed onto object, allowing foam to run down onto surface of fuel Used primarily in dike fires, fires involving spills around damaged/ overturned transport vehicles

39 Firefighter II 14–38 Rain-Down Foam Application Method Used when other two methods not feasible because of size of spill area or lack of object from which to bank foam (Continued)

40 Firefighter II 14–39 Rain-Down Foam Application Method Primary manual application technique on aboveground storage tank fires Directs stream into air above fire/spill, allows foam to float gently down onto surface of fuel

41 Firefighter II 14–40 Foam Hazards to Humans Foam concentrates pose minimal health risks to humans May be mildly irritating to skin, eyes (Continued)

42 Firefighter II 14–41 Foam Hazards to Humans Affected areas should be flushed with water Some concentrates, vapors may be harmful if ingested/inhaled Consult MSDS for specific information

43 Firefighter II 14–42 Foam Hazards to Equipment Most Class A, Class B foam concentrates are mildly corrosive Follow proper flushing procedures to prevent damage

44 Firefighter II 14–43 Foam Hazards to Environment Primary impact is effect of finished foam after application to fire/liquid spill Biodegradability of foam determined by rate at which environmental bacteria cause decomposition (Continued)

45 Firefighter II 14–44 Foam Hazards to Environment Environmental impact of foam concentrates varies In the U.S., Class A foams should be approved by USDA Forest Service (Continued)

46 Firefighter II 14–45 Foam Hazards to Environment Chemical properties of Class B foams and environmental impact vary on type and manufacturer Protein-based foams safer for environment (Continued)

47 Firefighter II 14–46 Summary Firefighters must know the differences between the classes of foam, how to generate foam, and how to apply foam most effectively

48 Firefighter II 14–47 Review Questions 1.What are the ways that fire fighting foam extinguishes and/or prevents fire? 2.Describe types of foam concentrates. 3.What are the methods by which foam may be proportioned? (Continued)

49 Firefighter II 14–48 Review Questions 4.What are the types of portable foam proportioners and how do they work? 5.Describe the techniques used to apply foam.


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