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Chapter 14 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to effectively apply fire fighting foam using various foam types, concentrates,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to effectively apply fire fighting foam using various foam types, concentrates,"— Presentation transcript:

0 Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th Edition
Chapter 14 — Fire Streams Firefighter II

1 Chapter 14 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to effectively apply fire fighting foam using various foam types, concentrates, and delivery devices following the policies and procedures set forth by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). Firefighter II

2 Specific Objectives 1. Describe the suppression characteristics of fire fighting foam. 2. Define terms associated with types of foam and the foam-making process. 3. Discuss how foam is generated. (Continued) Firefighter II

3 Specific Objectives 4. Discuss foam concentrates.
5. Describe methods by which foam may be proportioned. 6. Discuss foam proportioners. 7. Discuss foam delivery devices. (Continued) Firefighter II

4 Specific Objectives 8. List reasons for failure to generate foam or for generating poor-quality foam. 9. Describe foam application techniques. (Continued) Firefighter II

5 Specific Objectives 10. Discuss hazards associated with foam concentrates. 11. Place a foam line in service — In-line eductor. (Skill Sheet 14-II-1) Firefighter II

6 Ways Fire Fighting Foam Extinguishes/Prevents Fire
Separating Cooling Smothering Penetrating Firefighter II

7 Terms Associated With Foam
Foam concentrate Foam proportioner Foam solution Foam (finished foam) Firefighter II

8 How Foam is Generated Foams used today are of mechanical type and before use must be Proportioned Aerated (Continued) Firefighter II

9 How Foam is Generated Elements needed to produce fire fighting foam
Foam concentrate Water Air Mechanical agitation (Continued) Firefighter II

10 How Foam is Generated All elements must be present and blended in correct ratios Aeration produces foam bubbles to form effective foam blanket Firefighter II

11 Foam Expansion The increase in volume of foam when aerated
Method of aerating results in varying degrees of expansion Types of foam Firefighter II

12 Foam Concentrates — General Considerations
Foam concentrates must match fuel to which applied Class A foams not designed to extinguish Class B fires Class B foams designed solely for hydrocarbon fires will not extinguish polar solvent fires Firefighter II

13 Class A Foam Increasingly used in both wildland and structural fire fighting Special formulation of hydrocarbon surfactants (Continued) Firefighter II

14 Class A Foam Aerated Class A foam coats, insulates fuels, preventing pyrolysis and ignition May be used with variety of nozzles Firefighter II

15 Class B Foam Used to prevent ignition of or extinguish fires involving flammable and combustible liquids Used to suppress vapors from unignited spills of these liquids Several types of Class B foam concentrates available (Continued) Firefighter II

16 Class B Foam Manufactured from synthetic or protein base
May be proportioned into the fire stream through fixed system, apparatus-mounted system, or by portable foam proportioning equipment (Continued) Firefighter II

17 Class B Foam Foams such as AFFF and FFFP foam may be applied with standard fog nozzles or air-aspirating foam nozzles Rate of application depends on several factors (Continued) Firefighter II

18 Class B Foam Unignited spills do not require same application rates as ignited spills To be most effective, blanket of foam 4 inches (100 mm) thick should be applied to fuel surface Firefighter II

19 Specific Application Foams
Numerous types of foam available for specific applications Properties of foams vary Firefighter II

20 Proportioning Mixing of water with foam concentrate to form foam solution Most concentrates can be mixed with fresh/salt water (Continued) Firefighter II

21 Proportioning For maximum effectiveness, foam concentrates must be proportioned at designated percentage Most fire fighting foams intended to be mixed with 94 to 99.9 percent water Firefighter II

22 Proportioning Methods
Induction Injection Batch-mixing Premixing Firefighter II

23 Foam Proportioners — General Considerations
May be portable or apparatus-mounted Operate by one of two basic principles Firefighter II

24 Portable Foam Proportioners
Simplest, most common form of proportioning devices In-line foam eductors Foam nozzle eductors Firefighter II

25 Apparatus-Mounted Proportioners
Mounted on structural, industrial, wildland, and aircraft rescue and fire fighting apparatus, as well as on fire boats Three types Firefighter II

26 Compressed-Air Foam Systems (CAFS)
Newer structural engines are equipped with CAFS (Continued) Firefighter II

27 Compressed-Air Foam Systems (CAFS)
Standard centrifugal pump supplies water, direct-injection foam-proportioning system mixes foam solution with water on discharge side of pump, onboard air compressor adds air to mix before discharging from engine (Continued) Firefighter II

28 Compressed-Air Foam Systems (CAFS)
Unlike other systems, hoseline contains finished foam Advantages Disadvantages Firefighter II

29 Handline Nozzles Solid-bore nozzles Fog nozzles
Air-aspirating foam nozzles Firefighter II

30 Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Generating Devices
Produce foam that is semistable with high air content Medium-expansion foam High-expansion foam Water-aspirating type nozzle Mechanical blower generator Firefighter II

31 Reasons for Poor-Quality Foam/ Failure to Generate Foam
Eductor, nozzle flow ratings do not match so foam concentrate cannot induct into fire stream Air leaks at fittings cause loss of suction Improper cleaning of proportioning equipment causes clogged foam passages (Continued) Firefighter II

32 Reasons for Poor-Quality Foam/ Failure to Generate Foam
Nozzle not fully open, restricting water flow Hose lay on discharge side of eductor is too long Hose is kinked and stops flow (Continued) Firefighter II

33 Reasons for Poor-Quality Foam/ Failure to Generate Foam
Nozzle is too far above eductor Mixing different types of foam concentrate in same tank results in mixture too viscous to pass through eductor Firefighter II

34 Roll-On Foam Application Method
Directs foam stream on ground near front edge of burning liquid spill Foam rolls across surface of fuel (Continued) Firefighter II

35 Roll-On Foam Application Method
Firefighters continue to apply foam until spreads across entire surface of fuel and fire extinguished Used only on pool of liquid fuel on open ground Firefighter II

36 Bank-Down Foam Application Method
May be employed when elevated object is near/ within area of burning pool of liquid or unignited liquid spill Object may be wall, tank shell, similar vertical structure (Continued) Firefighter II

37 Bank-Down Foam Application Method
Foam stream directed onto object, allowing foam to run down onto surface of fuel Used primarily in dike fires, fires involving spills around damaged/ overturned transport vehicles Firefighter II

38 Rain-Down Foam Application Method
Used when other two methods not feasible because of size of spill area or lack of object from which to bank foam (Continued) Firefighter II

39 Rain-Down Foam Application Method
Primary manual application technique on aboveground storage tank fires Directs stream into air above fire/spill, allows foam to float gently down onto surface of fuel Firefighter II

40 Foam Hazards to Humans Foam concentrates pose minimal health risks to humans May be mildly irritating to skin, eyes (Continued) Firefighter II

41 Foam Hazards to Humans Affected areas should be flushed with water
Some concentrates, vapors may be harmful if ingested/inhaled Consult MSDS for specific information Firefighter II

42 Foam Hazards to Equipment
Most Class A, Class B foam concentrates are mildly corrosive Follow proper flushing procedures to prevent damage Firefighter II

43 Foam Hazards to Environment
Primary impact is effect of finished foam after application to fire/liquid spill Biodegradability of foam determined by rate at which environmental bacteria cause decomposition (Continued) Firefighter II

44 Foam Hazards to Environment
Environmental impact of foam concentrates varies In the U.S., Class A foams should be approved by USDA Forest Service (Continued) Firefighter II

45 Foam Hazards to Environment
Chemical properties of Class B foams and environmental impact vary on type and manufacturer Protein-based foams safer for environment (Continued) Firefighter II

46 Summary Firefighters must know the differences between the classes of foam, how to generate foam, and how to apply foam most effectively Firefighter II

47 Review Questions 1. What are the ways that fire fighting foam extinguishes and/or prevents fire? 2. Describe types of foam concentrates. 3. What are the methods by which foam may be proportioned? (Continued) Firefighter II

48 Review Questions 4. What are the types of portable foam proportioners and how do they work? 5. Describe the techniques used to apply foam. Firefighter II

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