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Types of Concentrates (Water Additives). 13 Foam Concentrate - Water Additives Wetting agents Class A foam concentrate –Class A Foam Class B foam concentrate.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Concentrates (Water Additives). 13 Foam Concentrate - Water Additives Wetting agents Class A foam concentrate –Class A Foam Class B foam concentrate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Concentrates (Water Additives)

2 13 Foam Concentrate - Water Additives Wetting agents Class A foam concentrate –Class A Foam Class B foam concentrate –Protein & Film Forming Fluoroprotein (FFFP) –Aqueous Film Forming Foams (AFFF) –Alcohol Resistant-AFFF (AR-AFFF) Emulsifiers / Spill response agents Gels Not to be mistaken for Class A concentrate

3 14 Class A foam (Proportioned %) –Wood, paper, tires, any Class A combustible –Effective in initial attack, overhaul, mop-up and exposure protection –Does NOT affect application rates or manpower requirements Class B foam (Proportioned %) –Hydrocarbons and polar solvents Emulsifier/Spill response agent (Various rates) –“Fuel neutralizer” and hydrocarbon recovery Gel (Various rates) –Exposure protection Concentrate Usage

4 Class A Foam

5 16 Finished foam adjusted by concentrate percentage using the proportioner Wet 0.2% Fluid 0.5% Dry 1.0% Overhaul Initial Attack Exposure Class A Foam Characteristics

6 17 Small bubble structure and quick drain time Wet Foam At 0.2% - Overhaul

7 18 Medium bubble structure and slower drain time Fluid Foam At 0.5% - Initial Attack

8 19 Produces a dry foam blanket with a very slow drain time Dry Foam At 1.0% Exposure Protection - Long Lasting

9 20 Foam Properties Expansion ratio –Volume of finished foam to volume of foam solution –Hose-end appliance dictates expansion ratio –Based on amount of air introduced –Low Expansion1:1 - 20:1 –Medium Expansion 20: :1 –High Expansion 200:1 +

10 21 Exterior Low Expansion Application

11 22 Medium Expansion Foam

12 23 Flowing down a hillside High expansion generator High Expansion Foam

13 The Value Of Using Class A Foam Improves Fire Fighting Effectiveness By 2 To 4 Times

14 25 Salem Tests Fire Engineering, February 1993 Temperature drop from 1,000° F to 212° F, at a four foot level Water CAFS Foam Water: 223 Seconds Foam: 103 Seconds CAFS: 39 Seconds

15 26 Crib burn - controlled test conditions –Class A foam vs. plain water –40% less solution than plain water –43% less extinguishing effort than with plain water (extinguishing agent volume x time to extinguish) Conclusion –Reduced exposure to hostile environments and improved fire fighter safety Dr. Holger de Vries (Germany) Fire Chief Magazine, August 1999

16 27 Palmdale Study Fire Chief Magazine, August 2001

17 28 L.A. County Fire Dept. scientifically conducted tests to compare effectiveness of: –Plain water –Foam solution –Compressed air foam Temperature readings obtained via wall and ceiling mounted thermocouples at one foot increments Palmdale Study

18 29 Three identical 1100 sq./ft. homes and contents Palmdale Study

19 30 Critical Application Rate The IOWA formula was used to calculate flow rate = GPM Cubic Feet Involved 100 = 91 9,

20 31 Knockdown Time Results Water Foam CAFS Water: 50 seconds Foam: 25 seconds 50% better than water CAFS: 11 seconds 78% better than water 66% better than foam

21 32 Gallons Required To Knockdown Water Foam CAFS Water: 73 gallons Foam: 44 gallons 40% better than water CAFS: 16 gallons 79% better than water 64% better than foam

22 33 Total Gallons Used Water Foam CAFS Water: 320 gallons Foam: 95 gallons 71% better than water CAFS: 45 gallons 86% better than water 53% better than foam After 225 gallons, IC ordered foam to aid overhaul

23 34 Time To Cool: 600°F To 200°F Water Foam CAFS Water: 6:03 min Foam: 1:45 min 71% better than water CAFS: 1:28 min 76% better than water 17% better than foam

24 35 Total Foam Concentrate Used Foam CAFS Concentrate Cost: $15/gal Foam Solution: 31 oz = $3.63 CAFS: 5.8 oz = $0.68

25 36 What These Tests Prove Naturally aspirated foam (NAF) beats water –Time to knockdown –Gallons to knockdown –Total water used –Cooling Compressed Air Foam beats NAF - in all categories

26 37 Why Does Foam Work? Smaller droplets – faster heat absorbtion Reduces surface tension – penetrates and wets fuel Foam blanket – provides protection

27 38 Surface tension causes water to bead up on fuel… Water And Class A Concentrate

28 39 Add Class A foam to plain water… solution spreads and penetrates the fuel… Water And Class A Concentrate

29 40 Chance of rekindle lessens with Class A solution Water And Class A Concentrate

30 41 Give It A Try Place a small drop of plain water on piece of corrugated cardboard (Note: it maintains beaded shape, caused by surface tension) Place a small drop of soapy water next to it (soap is a surfactant similar to Class A) Which would provide better extinguishment and have less runoff?

31 42 Water Foam CAFS Why Use Water Additives?

32 43 Class A Foam Applications

33 44 Fire Reported! 1890’s brick schoolhouse –4 miles outside of town –No hydrants First pumper on scene –6 minute response –750 gallons of water –FoamPro 2001

34 45 Fire Knocked Down! Initial attack –2-1/2” line –328 gpm –0.5% Class A foam Knockdown – 6 seconds – 33 gallons of water – 0.17 gallons of Class A foam concentrate

35 46 Water: – 750 gpm supplied by: – Two 2-1/2” – Two 1-3/4” – No effect Tire Fire Class A Foam Class A foam: – % – Medium expansion – 20 minute knockdown Tire Fire Plain Water Effectiveness On Tire Fires

36 47 Class A foam attack gpm at 0.5% Fully Involved Garage!

37 48 Garage After 35 Second Attack NOTE: Lack of smoke; ability of Class A foam to bond with carbon

38 49 200' x 24' x 35' wood frame structure Attack with single 1 ½" CAFS line with 1" tip Approximately 50 gpm, 20 cfm at 0.5% Structural – Exterior Attack

39 50 Exposure on left protected with foam CAFS attack begins Structural – Exterior Attack

40 51 CAFS attack continues Structural – Exterior Attack

41 52 Exterior Structure Attack with Low Expansion CAFS stream

42 53 Improves firefighter safety Increases efficiency of plain water 2 to 4 times Faster fire knockdown Reduces heat rapidly Reduces property damage Reduces overhaul Fewer rekindles Exposure protection Preserves evidence Faster cleanup Reduces on scene time Benefits Of Class A Foam To The Department

43 54 Points To Ponder Immediately reduce your fire losses by 50 to 75% … just by implementing Class A foam or CAFS. What other initiative would have as significant an impact for your department? If this is not a top priority for your department, why not?

44 Class B Foam & Emulsifiers

45 56 Designed to form a film and seal vapors Applied at 1%, 3%, or 6% per foam manufacturer Polar solvents require alcohol resistant (AR) foam Multi-use foam can be used on both –Concentration ratios are 1%x3%, 3%x3%, and 3%x6% (second percentage for polar solvents) Class B Foam

46 57 Fuel must be contained to form film Class B Foam

47 58 Training Real life –If no containment: –No film forming seal –Then alternatives are: –Class A foam –Emulsifiers Containment Challenges

48 59 Types Of Class B Concentrate Film Forming FluoroProtein (FFFP) Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) Alcohol Resistant-Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AR-AFFF)

49 60 Capabilities: –Biodegradable –Excellent fuel shedding –Long lasting foam blanket and high burn-back resistance Limitations: –Requires aspiration –Used at ratios 3% or 6% –Poor at flowing and wetting (messy and smelly) Film Forming FluoroProtein (FFFP)

50 61 Capabilities: –Does not require specialized delivery equipment –Fluid foam that spreads across the fuel surface –Quick knockdown –Long shelf life in original sealed container (unopened) Limitations: –Fast drain time –Limited burn-back resistance –May be hazardous –Storage and shelf-life once original container is opened –Use only on hydrocarbons at 1%, 3% or 6% ratios Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)

51 62 Alcohol Resistant-Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AR-AFFF) Capabilities: –Multi-use fuels (Hydrocarbons/Polar Solvents) –Excellent burn-back resistance and stable foam blanket –Long shelf life in original sealed container (unopened) Limitations: –Does not require aeration delivery equipment –Viscous liquid difficult to premix –May be hazardous –Storage and shelf-life once original container is opened –Used at 3% and 6% ratios (Multi-use 1%x3%, 3%x3% or 3%x6%)

52 63 What To Consider -“B” Concentrates Cost of solution vs. concentrate –Your application – hydrocarbon or polar solvent Shipping, storage and handling –Significant logistics improvement with lower ratios –Given storage capacity - added protection Mutual aid Proportioning system –Higher concentration ratios require larger systems –Lower concentration ratios require high accuracy

53 64 Do Not Mix Class A & B Foam Result of mixed foam (in strainer)

54 65 Emulsifiers / Spill Response Agents Capabilities: –Non-toxic and biodegradable –Long term vapor suppression –Aids in hydrocarbon recovery Limitations: –Limited extinguishing potential –Application rates vary with products-high cost –Application by volume not by percentage –Not compatible with Polar Solvents –No approval process or recognized performance standard

55 66 Gel Capabilities –Excellent insulator –Long term exposure protection Limitations –Limited extinguishing potential –High cost –May cause slippery work areas –Solution viscosity very high-most products require hose end eductor –No approval process or recognized performance standard

56 67 PoorAverageExcellent Extinguishing Agent Synopsis


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