What is Matter? A substance that has mass (“weight”) and volume (takes up space).
States of Matter Matter on Earth can exist as 4 different phases or states (Others exist, but they are not included in our curriculum). Solid Liquid Gas Plasma All living and non-living things are made of matter.
Solids Has a definite volume and a definite shape. The atoms or molecules in a solid are strongly attracted to one another and tightly packed. Examples: – Rocks – Desk – Apple
Gases Has no definite volume and no definite shape. The atoms or molecules of gases have very little attractive force on each other. This causes them to move freely and independently. The atoms or molecules move apart until they’re evenly spaced throughout the container they are placed in. Examples: – Air (mixture of different gases) – Water Vapor (water in a gas form)
Plasma on Earth On Earth, plasma is found naturally in lightning bolts. Also in Plasma TV’s, Fluorescent Bulbs, and Neon Signs!
Plasma Plasma is super-heated gas – Very high temperatures and pressures. – When electrons become temporarily excited! Most of the matter in the universe is in the plasma state. Stars are composed of matter in the plasma state. The Sun is matter in this state.
Vocabulary – p.56 in your INB Kinetic Energy – The energy of motion. A moving object has the most kinetic energy at the point where it moves the fastest. Thermal Expansion – increase in the size of a substance when the temperature increases OR contracts when cooled. – Exception to the Rule – WATER; when cooled it expands.
Melting………. Solid Liquid Melting – change from a solid state to a liquid state. Melting Point - The temperature at which a substance changes from its solid state to its liquid state through melting.
Freezing………. Liquid Solid Freezing – change from a liquid state to a solid state Freezing Point - The temperature at which a substance changes from its liquid state to its solid state through freezing.
Vaporazation…… Liquid Gas Vaporization (Boiling) – Change from a liquid state to a gaseous state. Boiling Point - The temperature at which a substance changes from its liquid state to its gas state through boiling.
Condensation…….Gas Liquid Condensation –Change from a gaseous state to a liquid state. Condensation Point – temperature at which a gas condenses.
Write the following question on the top of page 55 in your INB Think about your definitions and the Eureka video when answering the following question. – Why is the grass wet in the morning when it didn’t rain the night before?
Page 53 in your INB Directions: Match the particles of matter and paste them in the correctly labeled jar – Solid, Liquid or Gas When finished, write a description of how the particles move as well as find two picture examples of each state of matter.
CHANGES IN MATTER Matter will change phases when heat is added or lost. Brainpop Video Melting: solid to a liquid (heat is added) Boiling: liquid to a gas (heat is added) Sublimation: solid to a gas (heat is added) Freezing: liquid to a solid (heat is lost) Condensation: gas to a liquid (heat is lost)
WAYS TO MEASURE MATTER Mass – the amount of matter in an object. – Measured in grams (g) and kilograms (kg) Volume – The amount of space an object takes up. – Measured in milliliters (mL) and liters (L), or cm 3 Density – amount of matter in a given volume of a substance Weight – The downward pull on an object due to gravity.