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Solids, Liquids, Gases and Plasmas STATES OF MATTER NOTES
STATES OF MATTER Matter is made of tiny particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) that attract other particles. These particles are constantly moving.
STATES OF MATTER The motion of the particles and strength of attraction between particles determine a material’s state of matter.
STATES OF MATTER The 3 familiar states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. Plasma is common in the universe, but not on Earth.
PLASMAS Plasma occurs at extremely high temperatures. Found in stars, lightening, and neon lights.
SOLIDS A solid is matter with a definite shape and volume. Ex: rocks
SOLIDS Particles in a solid are packed closely together. Particles vibrate in place, but do not have enough energy to move out of their fixed position.
LIQUIDS A liquid is matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape.
LIQUIDS If you pour a liquid from one container to another, the liquid will form to the container, but the amount (volume) stays the same.
LIQUIDS Particles in a liquid move more freely than particles in a solid. The particles have enough energy to move out of their fixed position, but not enough energy to move far.
VISCOSITY Viscosity is a liquid’s resistance to flow. The slower a liquid flows, the higher the viscosity. Ex: Honey has high viscosity, water has low viscosity.
GASES Most are invisible. Gas is matter that has NO definite shape or volume.
GASES Particles in a gas are far apart and move at high speeds in all directions. Gases can be compressed and expanded (ex: basketball in winter)
TEMPERATURE Temperature is a measure of how fast the particles in an object are moving. Higher temperatures have faster moving particles.
HEAT Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature.
CHANGES BETWEEN SOLID AND LIQUID STATES Melting – changing from a solid to a liquid. Melting occurs when a solid absorbs thermal energy and its temperature rises.
CHANGES BETWEEN SOLID AND LIQUID STATES Freezing – changing from a liquid to a solid. As the liquid cools, it loses thermal energy and the particles slow down and come closer together.
CHANGES BETWEEN LIQUID AND GAS STATES Matter changes between a liquid and a gas states by vaporization and condensation.
VAPORIZATION Vaporization – change from liquid to a gas.
VAPORIZATION Evaporation – vaporization that takes place at the surface of a liquid. Boiling – vaporization that takes place below the surface of a liquid.
CONDENSATION Condensation - changing from a gas to a liquid. Opposite of vaporization.
CHANGES BETWEEN THE SOLID AND GAS STATES Sublimation – substances change from the solid state to gas state without ever becoming a liquid. Ex: dry ice
PHYSICAL CHANGE Physical Change – the form or appearance of matter changes, but not its composition (what it is made of )
CHEMICAL CHANGE Chemical Change – substances are changed into different substances.
CHEMICAL CHANGE SIGNS Change in color. Odor. Formation of gas. Formation of solid.
PHYSICAL VS. CHEMICAL CHANGE
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