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Astronomy. The Solar System Our solar system consists of one Sun, eight planets, a few dwarf planets, and many, many, moons. Our solar system consists.

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Presentation on theme: "Astronomy. The Solar System Our solar system consists of one Sun, eight planets, a few dwarf planets, and many, many, moons. Our solar system consists."— Presentation transcript:

1 Astronomy

2 The Solar System Our solar system consists of one Sun, eight planets, a few dwarf planets, and many, many, moons. Our solar system consists of one Sun, eight planets, a few dwarf planets, and many, many, moons. The solar system also contains asteroids, meteors, meteorites, meteoroids and comets to name a few. The solar system also contains asteroids, meteors, meteorites, meteoroids and comets to name a few. The solar system also has man made items, also. Such as, satellites, rockets, a space station, and “space junk.” The solar system also has man made items, also. Such as, satellites, rockets, a space station, and “space junk.”

3 THE SUN The Sun is the closest star to us The Sun is the closest star to us It is what gives us light and energy for life It is what gives us light and energy for life It is 92 million miles away from Earth = one astronomical unit (AU) It is 92 million miles away from Earth = one astronomical unit (AU) It is like a giant nuclear power plant, constantly converting Hydrogen into Helium. (H -> He) It is like a giant nuclear power plant, constantly converting Hydrogen into Helium. (H -> He) It will eventually die out once it loses its fuel source, and the star will collapse It will eventually die out once it loses its fuel source, and the star will collapse

4 The Sun’s Interior The Core: the location in the center of the star where the nuclear fusion is taking place The Core: the location in the center of the star where the nuclear fusion is taking place The Radiation Zone: middle layer where the energy very slowly passes from the core outward The Radiation Zone: middle layer where the energy very slowly passes from the core outward The Convection Zone: outermost layer where the hot gases rises from the RZ and cool and then fall back towards the RZ—creating a convection current The Convection Zone: outermost layer where the hot gases rises from the RZ and cool and then fall back towards the RZ—creating a convection current

5 The Sun’s Interior

6 Features on the Sun Sunspots: cool areas located on the Sun Sunspots: cool areas located on the Sun Prominences: loops of gas usually linking groups of sunspots Prominences: loops of gas usually linking groups of sunspots Solar Flare: connected prominences that have so much energy that they are released from the Sun out into space Solar Flare: connected prominences that have so much energy that they are released from the Sun out into space They can be seen as auroras on Earth They can be seen as auroras on Earth They can disrupt our satellite links and cell phone services They can disrupt our satellite links and cell phone services

7 Prominence Prominence and Solar Flares Sunspot

8 Auroras

9 Sun Spots Solar flare: March 9, 2012 Solar flare: March 9,

10 Stars Stars are classified according to their color, temperature, size, composition, and brightness. Stars are classified according to their color, temperature, size, composition, and brightness. Color: determined by the temperature Color: determined by the temperature (coolest) Red  Red-Orange  Yellow  White  Blue (hottest) (coolest) Red  Red-Orange  Yellow  White  Blue (hottest) 0 C ,000 50,000 0 C ,000 50,000 Size: Even though they all appear the same to us, they can be very different Size: Even though they all appear the same to us, they can be very different Composition: Helium, Hydrogen, Sodium, Calcium Composition: Helium, Hydrogen, Sodium, Calcium Brightness: depends on its size and temperature Brightness: depends on its size and temperature Apparent Brightness: Brightness as seen from Earth Apparent Brightness: Brightness as seen from Earth Absolute Brightness: Brightness of the star if we were all at equal distances to every star Absolute Brightness: Brightness of the star if we were all at equal distances to every star

11 The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

12 The EIGHT Planets (plus Pluto) The Inner Planets The Inner Planets Small and Rocky Small and Rocky Few or no Moons Few or no MoonsMercuryVenusEarthMars The Outer Planets The Outer Planets Large and gaseous Many Moons All have ringsJupiterSaturnUranusNeptune

13 Planets’ orbits around the Sun

14 Poor Pluto Why doesn’t Pluto qualify as a planet? Why doesn’t Pluto qualify as a planet? It’s too small It’s too small It doesn’t fit the pattern of a planet in that location in our solar system It doesn’t fit the pattern of a planet in that location in our solar system Its orbit is out of sync with the other planets Its orbit is out of sync with the other planets It is now considered a DWARF PLANET It is now considered a DWARF PLANET Sometimes called a sub-planet Sometimes called a sub-planet

15 Mercury — Inner Planet Smallest Planet Smallest Planet Closest to the Sun Closest to the Sun Has virtually no atmosphere, which is why it has so many craters Has virtually no atmosphere, which is why it has so many craters Moon: none Moon: none Day: 59 Earth days Day: 59 Earth days Year: 0.24 Earth Year Year: 0.24 Earth Year ( about 88 days)

16 Venus — Inner Planet Very similar is size and shape to Earth, so it is sometimes called “Earth’s Twin” Very similar is size and shape to Earth, so it is sometimes called “Earth’s Twin” Its atmosphere is so thick its always cloudy, but those clouds are acidic! Its atmosphere is so thick its always cloudy, but those clouds are acidic! Moon: none Moon: none Day: 243 Earth days Day: 243 Earth days Year: 0.62 Earth Years Year: 0.62 Earth Years ( 226 days) ( 226 days)

17 Earth — Inner Planet Rocky planet with an atmosphere which is mostly Nitrogen Rocky planet with an atmosphere which is mostly Nitrogen Only planet with Life Only planet with Life Only planet with liquid water Only planet with liquid water Moon: one Moon: one

18 Mars — Inner Planet The RED PLANET The RED PLANET The atmosphere is 95% CO 2. The atmosphere is 95% CO 2. The planet has extreme temperature differences…70 o F during the day and -225 o F at night! The planet has extreme temperature differences…70 o F during the day and -225 o F at night! Mars also is tilted like Earth, so it too has seasons Mars also is tilted like Earth, so it too has seasons Location we are planning on making a space station in the near future Location we are planning on making a space station in the near future Moons: two Moons: two Day: 24.7 Earth hours Day: 24.7 Earth hours Year: 1.9 Earth Years Year: 1.9 Earth Years (693 Earth Days) (693 Earth Days)

19 Asteroid Belt The inner planets and the outer planets are separated by an asteroid belt The inner planets and the outer planets are separated by an asteroid belt An asteroid is a small rocky substance that orbits the Sun An asteroid is a small rocky substance that orbits the Sun

20 Jupiter – Outer Planet Largest Planet Largest Planet Thick atmosphere made out of Hydrogen and Helium Thick atmosphere made out of Hydrogen and Helium Probably has a dense core, but most of the planet is gaseous Probably has a dense core, but most of the planet is gaseous Has rings Has rings Moons: 60+ Moons: 60+ Day: 10 Earth Hours Day: 10 Earth Hours Year: 12 Earth Years Year: 12 Earth Years

21 Saturn—Outer Planet Second largest planet in the solar system Second largest planet in the solar system Well known for its system of rings Well known for its system of rings Gaseous planet made out of Helium and Hydrogen Gaseous planet made out of Helium and Hydrogen Moons: 31+ Moons: 31+ Day: 11 hours Day: 11 hours Year: 29 years Year: 29 years

22 Uranus—Outer Planet Also a gaseous planet, with traces of methane which makes it blue-green Also a gaseous planet, with traces of methane which makes it blue-green It axis of rotation is tilted so it rotates head over heel instead of spinning like a top It axis of rotation is tilted so it rotates head over heel instead of spinning like a top Does have rings Does have rings Moons:13+ Moons:13+ Day: 16 hours Day: 16 hours Year: 84 Earth Years Year: 84 Earth Years

23 Neptune –Outer Planet Cold, blue planet Cold, blue planet It has clouds and storms, but not with water like ours It has clouds and storms, but not with water like ours Does have rings Does have rings Moons: 13+ Moons: 13+ Day: 16 hours Day: 16 hours Year: 164 years Year: 164 years

24 Meteors/Meteorites/Meteroids Meteoroid: free floating rock in outer space Meteoroid: free floating rock in outer space Meteor: rock fragments burning as they make there way through our atmosphere; we see them as “Shooting Stars” Meteor: rock fragments burning as they make there way through our atmosphere; we see them as “Shooting Stars” Meteorite: If there are any pieces of rock that make it to the ground, the remaining piece is called a meteorite Meteorite: If there are any pieces of rock that make it to the ground, the remaining piece is called a meteorite

25 Meteor or shooting star Meteorites on Mars Crater caused by meteorite

26 Black Holes An object in space whose gravity is so strong that not even light can escape An object in space whose gravity is so strong that not even light can escape

27

28 Comet

29 Comets Hale-Bopp 1997 Halley’s Comet

30 Seasons The seasons on Earth are due to the tilt of the Earth, NOT how close we are to the Sun. The seasons on Earth are due to the tilt of the Earth, NOT how close we are to the Sun. We are actually closest to the Sun in the Winter, but the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the sun, so we receive less direct Sun rays. We are actually closest to the Sun in the Winter, but the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the sun, so we receive less direct Sun rays.

31 Tilt of the Earth causes Seasons During the winter, we are tilted AWAY from the Sun. During the summer, we are tilted TOWARDS the Sun

32 Distance of Earth to the Sun during its Orbit We are CLOSER to the Sun on January 2 nd than on July 2 nd

33 Size Comparisons

34

35

36 Size comparisons

37 History of the Earth in 2 minutes Video clip Video clip Video clip Video clip


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