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Nitrogen Deposition Effects of Ammonia Ammonia Workshop National Atmospheric Deposition Program October 22-24, 2003 Washington, DC USA.

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Presentation on theme: "Nitrogen Deposition Effects of Ammonia Ammonia Workshop National Atmospheric Deposition Program October 22-24, 2003 Washington, DC USA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nitrogen Deposition Effects of Ammonia Ammonia Workshop National Atmospheric Deposition Program October 22-24, 2003 Washington, DC USA

2 Contrasting NO x and NH 3  Historical focus on NO x  Growing focus on NH 3  Similarities –Both have point and mobile sources –Both, once emitted can be converted to any other N species  Both contribute to all the N-related impacts.

3 Reactive N vs Unreactive N 2  Unreactive N is N 2 (78% of earth’s atmosphere)  Reactive N (Nr) includes all biologically, chemically and physically active N compounds in the atmosphere and biosphere of the Earth  N controls productivity of most natural ecosystems

4 Reactive N vs Unreactive N 2  Unreactive N is N 2 (78% of earth’s atmosphere)  Reactive N (Nr) includes all biologically, chemically and physically active N compounds in the atmosphere and biosphere of the Earth  N controls productivity of most natural ecosystems  Nature converts N 2 to Nr by biological nitrogen fixation (BNF).  Humans convert N 2 to Nr by fossil fuel combustion, the Haber Bosch process, and cultivation-induced BNF.

5 Reactive N vs Unreactive N 2  Unreactive N is N 2 (78% of earth’s atmosphere)  Reactive N (Nr) includes all biologically, chemically and physically active N compounds in the atmosphere and biosphere of the Earth  N controls productivity of most natural ecosystems  Nature converts N 2 to Nr by biological nitrogen fixation (BNF)  Humans convert N 2 to Nr by fossil fuel combustion, the Haber Bosch process, and cultivation-induced BNF.  Primary Conclusions –Humans create more Nr than do natural terrestrial processes. –Nr is accumulating in the environment. –Nr accumulation contributes to most environment issues of the day. –NH x and its conversion products are key components.

6 Objectives  Contrasting NO x and NH 3  Human Alteration of N Cycle –An agrarian to an industrializing world  The Consequences of Anthropogenic Nitrogen (including NH 3 ). –Nitrogen is nutritious –Nitrogen cascades  Challenges!

7 The History of Nitrogen --N becomes limiting?-- Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002; Galloway et al., 2003a N-Nutrient N-Discovered BNF

8 The History of Nitrogen --N becomes limiting?-- Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002; Galloway et al., 2003a N-Nutrient N-Discovered BNF World is running out of N * * 1898, Sir William Crookes, president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

9 Carl Bosch ( ) The perfect catalyst, 1910 Large-scale production, 1913 Ammonia to nitrate, 1914 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, ”chemical high pressure methods” Fritz Haber ( ) Began work on NH 3, 1904 First patent, 1908 Commercial-scale test, 1909 Developed Cl 2 gas production, 1914 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, ”for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements” Smil, 2001

10 The History of Nitrogen --N r Creation, Haber Bosch process-- Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002; Galloway et al., 2003a N-Nutrient N-Discovered N 2 + 3H 2 --> 2NH 3 BNF

11 The History of Nitrogen --N r Creation: Fossil Fuel Combustion-- Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002; Galloway et al., 2003a N-Nutrient N-Discovered N 2 + 3H 2 --> 2NH 3 BNF

12 The History of Nitrogen --N r Creation, People and Nature-- Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002; Galloway et al., 2003a N-Nutrient N-Discovered N 2 + 3H 2 --> 2NH 3 BNF Natural Range, terrestrial { * *

13 Nitrogen Drivers in 1860 Grain Production Meat Production Energy Production

14 NO y N2N2N2N2 NH x 5 6 The Global Nitrogen Budget in 1860 and mid-1990s, TgN/yr Galloway et al., 2003b

15 Grain Production Meat Production Energy Production Nitrogen Drivers in 1860 & 1995

16 NO y N2N2N2N2 NH x 5 6 NO y N2N2N2N2 NH x N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 The Global Nitrogen Budget in 1860 and mid-1990s, TgN/yr 1860 mid-1990s Galloway et al., 2003b

17 Nitrogen Deposition Past and Present mg N/m 2 /yr Galloway et al., 2003b

18  Haber-Bosch has facilitated agricultural intensification  40% of world’s population is alive because of it  An additional 3 billion people by 2050 will be sustained by it  Most N that enters agroecosystems is released to the environment. Nr and Agricultural Ecosystems

19 u NO x emissions contribute to OH, which defines the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere u NO x emissions are responsible for tens of thousands of excess- deaths per year in the United States u O 3 and N 2 O contribute to atmospheric warming u N 2 O emissions contribute to stratospheric O 3 depletion Nr and the Atmosphere

20  N is the limiting nutrient in most temperate and polar ecosystems  Nr deposition increases and then decreases forest and grassland productivity  Nr additions probably decrease biodiversity across the entire range of deposition Nr and Terrestrial Ecosystems

21  Surface water acidification –Tens of thousands of lakes and streams –Biodiversity losses  As reductions in SO 2 emissions continue, Nr deposition becomes more important. Nr and Freshwater Ecosystems

22 Nr and Coastal Ecosystems Increased algal productivity Shifts in community structure Harmful algal blooms Degradation of seagrass and algal beds Formation of nuisance algal mats Coral reef destruction Increased oxygen demand and hypoxia Increased nitrous oxide (greenhouse gas) Sybil Seitzinger, 2003

23 There are significant effects of Nr accumulation within each reservoir These effects are linked temporally and biogeochemically in the Nitrogen Cascade

24 Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Agroecosystem Effects NH x Food Production Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil The Nitrogen Cascade N org Galloway et al., 2003a

25 Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Groundwater Effects Surface water Effects Coastal Effects PM & Visibility Effects Agroecosystem Effects NH x Food Production Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil The Nitrogen Cascade NH 3 N org Forests & Grassland Soil Ocean Effects Galloway et al., 2003a

26 Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Groundwater Effects Surface water Effects Coastal Effects PM & Visibility Effects Agroecosystem Effects NH x Food Production Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil NO 3 The Nitrogen Cascade NH 3 N org Forests & Grassland Soil Ocean Effects Galloway et al., 2003a

27 Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Groundwater Effects Surface water Effects Coastal Effects Energy Production PM & Visibility Effects Ozone Effects Agroecosystem Effects NH x Food Production NO x Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil NO 3 The Nitrogen Cascade NH 3 N org Forests & Grassland Soil Ocean Effects Galloway et al., 2003a

28 Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Groundwater Effects Surface water Effects Coastal Effects Energy Production PM & Visibility Effects Ozone Effects Agroecosystem Effects NH x Food Production NO x Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil NO 3 The Nitrogen Cascade NH 3 --Indicates denitrification potential N org Forests & Grassland Soil Ocean Effects

29 Atmosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystems Human Activities Groundwater Effects Surface water Effects Coastal Effects Stratospheric Effects Energy Production PM & Visibility Effects Ozone Effects Agroecosystem Effects NH x Food Production NO x Crop Animal People (Food; Fiber) Soil NO 3 The Nitrogen Cascade NH 3 --Indicates denitrification potential N org Forests & Grassland Soil Ocean Effects N2ON2O GH Effects N2ON2O

30 Hog Production in USA (1 dot= 10,000 Hogs and Pigs)

31 Meat Consumption in North America (kg/capita/year) Hogs and Pigs

32 Conclusions  NH 3 contributes to every N-related issue –Directly or indirectly  Nr and NH x are accumulating in environmental reservoirs  The impacts of N accumulation are significant and inter-related  NH 3 emissions will increase with time  There is need for an integrated approach to manage N!

33 Meat Consumption in North America (kg/capita/year) Layers & Pullets (60,000/dot)

34

35 Nr Creation Rates by Food and Energy Production in 2050 today 2050

36 Nr Creation Rates 1995 (left) and 2050 (right) TgN/yr 2050 rates scaled by: -> population increase relative to 1995 after Galloway and Cowling, 2002

37 Nr Creation Rates 1995 (left) and 2050 (right) TgN/yr 2050 rates scaled by: -> population increase relative to > N. Amer. per capita Nr creation in 1995 after Galloway and Cowling, 2002

38 N Fertilizer Produced 100 The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002

39 N Fertilizer Produced N Consumed The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen 14% of the N produced in the Haber-Bosch process enters the human mouth………. Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002

40 N Fertilizer Produced N Fertilizer Consumed N in Crop N Harvested N in Food N Consumed The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen % of the N produced in the Haber-Bosch process enters the human mouth……….if you are a vegetarian. Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002

41 N Fertilizer Produced N Fertilizer Applied N in Crop N In Feed N in Store N Consumed The Fate of Haber-Bosch Nitrogen -16 4% of the N produced in the Haber-Bosch process and used for animal production enters the human mouth. Galloway JN and Cowling EB. 2002

42 Nr Riverine Fluxes 1860 (left) and 1990 (right) TgN/yr -> all regions increase riverine fluxes -> Asia becomes dominant Galloway et al, 2003b; Boyer et al., in preparation

43 Nr Formation vs. Nr Conversion back to N 2 N2N2 Nr 160 Tg N/yr

44 Nr Formation vs. Nr Conversion back to N 2 N2N2 Nr 160 Tg N/yr ?? Is anthropogenic Nr accumulating in environmental systems? If so, where relative to point of introduction? If so, on what time scale?

45 Nr Formation vs. Nr Conversion back to N 2 N2N2 Nr 160 Tg N/yr < 160 Tg N/yr Is anthropogenic Nr accumulating in environmental systems? If so, where relative to point of introduction? If so, on what time scale? Nr is accumulating in the atmosphere. Nr is accumulating in terrestrial systems. Once Nr enters water (streams, rivers, estuaries) most will eventually denitrify but generally far from point of entry. Accumulation occurs on short- and long-time scales.

46 International Nitrogen Initiative  Formed in December 2002; SCOPE & IGBP sponsors  Objective optimize nitrogen’s beneficial role in sustainable food production and minimize nitrogen’s negative effects on human health and the environment resulting from food and energy production.  Preliminary assessment in December 2004.

47 ð establish Regional Centers for North America, Latin America, Asia, Oceania, Europe and Africa ð use a three-phased approach, designed around the program objectives, to work towards the overall goal of the INI  Phase I: Assessment of knowledge on N flows and problems  Phase II: Development of region-specific solutions.  Phase III: Implementation of scientific, engineering and policy tools to solve problems. ð activities for a given Center will depend upon the ‘maturity’ of nitrogen science and policy for that region. International Nitrogen Initiative Approach

48 The Components of INI acid rain Biodiversity losses eutrophication stratospheric ozone methemoglinemia smog haze human health forest productivity fertilizers agroecosystems fossil fuel combustion food production legumes North America Latin America Europe Asia Africa Oceania nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification CAFOs policy economics politics manure troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities decomposition assimilation emissions deposition rivers Imports/exports

49 The Components of INI acid rain Biodiversity losses eutrophication stratospheric ozone methemoglinemia smog haze human health forest productivity fertilizers agroecosystems fossil fuel combustion food production legumes North America Latin America Europe Asia Africa Oceania nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification CAFOs policy economics politics manure troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities decomposition assimilation emissions deposition rivers Imports/exports

50 Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems agroecosystems troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities The N Biogeochemical Cycle Systems

51 Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems agroecosystems troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification decomposition assimilation Processes The N Biogeochemical Cycle Systems

52 Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems agroecosystems troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification decomposition assimilation emissions deposition rivers imports/exports Exchanges Processes The N Biogeochemical Cycle Systems

53 Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems agroecosystems troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification decomposition assimilation emissions deposition rivers imports/exports Exchanges Processes The N Biogeochemical Cycle Energy Food People Systems

54 Phase I: Assessment of Science and Identification of Problems agroecosystems troposphere forests grasslands freshwaters estuaries ocean wetlands stratosphere cities nitrogen fixation denitrification nitrification decomposition assimilation emissions deposition rivers imports/exports acid rain biodiversity losses eutrophication smog haze human health forest productivity stratospheric ozone Exchanges ProcessesImpacts The N Biogeochemical Cycle Energy Food People Systems

55 Phase II: Development of Solutions Phase III: Implementation of Solutions acid rain biodiversity losses eutrophication smog haze human health forest productivity stratospheric ozone Impacts These impacts can be lessened by reducing the amount of reactive N created and by converting reactive N to N 2. To achieve these goals, while maintaining food and energy production, requires engineers, policy makers, economists, resource managers,etc. working in a regional context.

56 International Nitrogen Initiative Current Status  Formed in December 2002  Sponsored by SCOPE and IGBP  INI has a 15-person Scientific Advisory Committee  members from Brazil, China, France, Netherlands, Japan, South Africa, Sweden, Thailand,Uganda, United Kingdom, United States  First SAC meeting is hosted by Dutch Government  May 12-14, 2003, The Hague

57 The Challenge to all Parties Maximize food and energy production while maintaining environmental and human health!


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