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European Nitrogen Assessment: Supplementary Material: Powerpoint Graphics to Chapter 5. Source: Sutton, M.A., Howard, C.M., Erisman J.W., Bealey J.W.,

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Presentation on theme: "European Nitrogen Assessment: Supplementary Material: Powerpoint Graphics to Chapter 5. Source: Sutton, M.A., Howard, C.M., Erisman J.W., Bealey J.W.,"— Presentation transcript:

1 European Nitrogen Assessment: Supplementary Material: Powerpoint Graphics to Chapter 5. Source: Sutton, M.A., Howard, C.M., Erisman J.W., Bealey J.W., Billen G., Bleeker, A., Bouwman A., Grennfelt, G., van Grinsven, H. & Grizzetti G. (2011) The challenge to integrate nitrogen science and policies. Chapter 5, in: The European Nitrogen Assessment (Eds. Sutton et al.), Cambridge University Press.

2 Trend of N r inputs and emissions for the EU27 Sutton et al. (2011 ENA Ch 5) 2 2 r 2 3 x

3 Land-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen Nitrogen community split into separated research efforts Ammonia (NH 3 ) Aerosol NH 4 NO 3 Nitric Acid (HNO 3 ) Nitric oxide (NO) Ozone (O 3 ) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Wet deposition NH 4 + and NO 3 - Volatile Organic Nitrogen (VON) Particle Organic Nitrogen (PON) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Methane (CH 4 ) Net GHG Sutton et al. (2011 ENA Ch 5)

4 Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O) Ammonia (NH 3 ) Leached Nitrate (NO 3 - ) Further emission of NO x & N 2 O carrying on the cascade Natural ecosystems Ammonium nitrate in rain (NH 4 NO 3 ) Nitrate in streams, groundwater & coastal seas High temperature combustion & industry NrNr Livestock farming for food N r in manure Eventual denitrification to N 2 Simplified view of the Nitrogen Cascade Unintended N flows N form in the cascade Terrestrial Eutrophication Freshwater Eutrophication Greenhouse gas balance Particulate Matter Tropospheric ozone formation Stratospheric ozone loss Soil acidification Urban air quality Marine Eutrophication Environmental concern from N r 25 (13%) N 2 →N r 121 (63%) 45 (24%) N 2 →N r Anthropogenic annual N fixation N 2 →N r (Tg / yr): World (% in world) 3.7 (21%) 1.3 (8%) 11.5 (70%) EU27 (% in EU27) Fertilizer manufacture Crops for food & animal feed Crop biological nitrogen fixation Intended N flow

5 European Nitrogen policies & future challenges Part E Water Air Greenhouse Ecosystems Soil quality quality balance & biodiversity quality Part D Scaling up of issues through the European Nitrogen Assessment Part C Part B Nitrogen processing in the biosphere Nitrogen flows and fate in rural landscapes Nitrogen flows and fate in urban landscapes. Nitrogen flows in farming systems across Europe. Integrating nitrogen fluxes at the European Scale Geographic variation in terrestrial nitrogen budgets across Europe Atmospheric transport & deposition of nitrogen in Europe Nitrogen flows from European watersheds to coastal marine waters Sutton et al. (2011 ENA Ch 5) Upscaling & Integration Processes & Mechanisms

6 Sutton et al. (2011 ENA Ch 5) The NinE major environmental concerns of excess reactive nitrogen

7 FIRE AIR EARTH WATER Dry Moist Hot Cold Fitting the world together: The classical Greek model of the macrocosm AETHER QUINTESSENCE Empedocles (fragments c. 450 B.C.) Aristotle (De Caelo I.2, c. 280 B.C.) Sutton et al. (2011 ENA Ch 5)

8 GREENHOUSE BALANCE AIR QUALITY SOIL QUALITY WATER QUALITY ECOSYSTEMS & BIODIVERSITY Dry Moist Hot Cold Nitrogen Threats and the Environmental Macrocosm Sutton et al. (2011 ENA Ch 5)

9 Key nitrogen forms in the environmental macrocosm Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) & Nitrogen-GHG interactions Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) particles (PM 2.5 ) & ozone (O 3 ) in air Soil Organic Nitrogen (SON) Aqueous nitrate (NO 3 - ) & other dissolved N Ammonia & organic N in Ecosystems Storage of organic matter Human health Atmospheric chemistry Aqueous Transformations Sutton et al. (2011 ENA Ch 5)

10 N r & Society “The NitroNet Poll” In collaboration with The Green Room, BBC News. BBC News Article NitroNet Poll The public view reflects a wide range of N r priorities All N r issues must be addressed Highest score given to water quality Shared letters on the bars (left) show where there is no significant difference (P=0.05) Sutton et al. (2011 ENA Ch 5)

11 The Five Key Threats of Excess Reactive Nitrogen in the Environment

12 © Ian Leith© Mark Sutton

13 © Gilles Billen

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15 Additional copy: The N cascade as single graphical group Sutton et al. (2011 ENA Ch 5) Fertilizer manufacture Crops for food & animal feed NrNr Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O) Ammonia (NH 3 ) Leached Nitrate (NO 3 - ) Further emission of NO x & N 2 O carrying on the cascade Livestock farming Natural ecosystems Ammonium nitrate in rain (NH 4 NO 3 ) Nitrate in streams, groundwater & coastal seas Terrestrial Eutrophication Freshwater Eutrophication Greenhouse gas balance Particulate Matter High temperature combustion & industry Crop biological nitrogen fixation Tropospheric ozone formation Stratospheric ozone loss N r in manure 121 (63%) 25 (13%) 45 (24%) N 2 →N r Soil acidification 3.7 (21%) 1.3 (8%) 11.5 (70%) N 2 →N r Eventual denitrification to N 2 Urban air quality Marine Eutrophication


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