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Communities and Ecosystems
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Trophic structure is a key factor in community dynamics Every community has a trophic structure –A pattern of feeding relationships consisting of several different levels –The sequence of food transfer from producer to consumer is called a food chain. Producers are autotrophs (“self feed”) Consumers are heterotrophs (“different feed”)
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Food chains interconnect, forming food webs A food web –A network of interconnecting food chains –Arrows indicate direction of nutrient transfer –Several 1° Consumers depend on same producer –Some eat at multiple levels Figure 37.10
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ecosystem ecology emphasizes the processes energy flow and chemical cycling Chemical cycling Energy flow Light energy Chemical energy Chemical elements Heat energy Figure An ecosystem Includes a community and the abiotic factors with which it interacts. Transfer substances through trophic levels. But one flows out the other cycles within.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Each day Earth receives energy from the sun equivalent to 100 million atomic bombs… Most is absorbed, scattered, and reflected by our atmosphere or by the Earths surface. Only 1% of all the light energy the Earth receives is converted into chemical energy by primary producers through photosynthesis (the process of changing light into sugar and other foods/chemical energy). However, on a global scale this is enough to produce170 billion tons of organic material per year.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The amount of living organic material in an ecosystem is its Biomass. The amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy (organic material) by producers in a given area at a given time is called primary production. Primary production
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Primary production sets the energy budget for ecosystems Is the rate at which producers convert sunlight to chemical energy in organic matter (biomass) Open ocean Estuary Algal beds and coral reefs Tundra Temperate grassland Cultivated land Boreal forest (taiga) Savanna Temperate deciduous forest Tropical rain forest ,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 Average net primary productivity (g/m 2 /yr) Figure Desert and semidesert scrub Contributes most to Earth’s total net production due to its size
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Energy supply limits the length of food chains A pyramid of production –Shows the flow of energy from producers to primary consumers and to higher trophic levels Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers 10 kcal 100 kcal 1,000 kcal 10,000 kcal 1,000,000 kcal of sunlight Figure Can’t eat all Can’t digest all 2/3 digested used by cells Rest to mass (growth) Only this can be eaten by next level. 1/1000 of the sun’s energy makes it this far (1% of sun’s energy)
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Only about 10% of the energy stored at each trophic level is available to the next level Only a tiny amount of the energy converted by primary producers flows through he food chain to the top consumer This is why top level consumers require so much territory… –It takes a lot of vegetation to support trophic levels so many steps removed from photosynthetic production. Also why food chains are limited in size –Limited by availability of energy
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings A production pyramid explains why meat is a luxury for humans A field of corn –Can support many more human vegetarians than meat-eaters (less energy is wasted) CONNECTION Trophic level Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers Human vegetarians Corn Human meat-eaters Cattle Corn Figure 37.14
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Consumers Producers Nutrients available to producers Abiotic reservoir Detritivores Chemicals are recycled between organic matter (organisms) and abiotic reservoirs Biogeochemical cycle Figure Soil Decomposers
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Water moves through the biosphere in a global cycle Figure Transport over land Solar energy Net movement of water vapor by wind Runoff and groundwater Percolation through soil Precipitation over land Evaporation and transpiration from land Precipitation over ocean Evaporation from ocean Solar heat drives the global water cycle through precipitation, evaporation, and transpiration
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human activity affects the global water cycle 1)Important source of atmospheric water is transpiration, so destruction of the rain forests will change amount of water in the atmosphere and can alter local and global weather patterns. 2) Pumping large amounts of ground water to the surface for irrigation can increase evaporation and deplete ground water supplies.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The carbon cycle relies on photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition Carbon compounds (organic) are consumed. Respiration returns CO2 to the atmosphere. Photosynthesis = Respiration Burning fossil fuels is increasing CO2 levels and is causing global warming.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria Figure Nitrogen is a constituent of DNA and proteins…is essential for life. Various bacteria in soil convert gaseous N2 to compounds that plants use: ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3–) Detritivores decompose organic matter and recycle nitrogen to plants.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Humans are altering the nitrogen cycle 1)Sewage treatment facilities often empty large amounts of nitrogen into rivers and streams 2) Fertilizer is routinely applied These nitrogen sources continue to fertilize when they enter lakes and streams causing algae blooms Nitrates enter ground water used as drinking water and can be toxic
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings The phosphorus cycle depends on rock weathering Figure Phosphorus is needed for nucleic acids (DNA), phospholipids (cell membranes), bones and ATP (energy) It and other soil minerals are recycled locally. Weathering is a slow process so phosphorus is limited.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings In aquatic systems that have not been altered by humans the limited amount of phosphorus keeps algae to a minimum. In areas affected by humans (sewage, fertilizers, pesticides) phosphate pollution leads to heavy algal growth. Major algae blooms can kill aquatic organisms and be toxic to humans.
What is Ecology?. * Ecology is the study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
CH 55 & 56 – Energy flow in Ecosystems. Overview: Ecosystems An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a community, as well as the abiotic.
Cycles of Matter. Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems. Elements pass from one organism to another and.
THE BIOSPHERE Ch. 3 p What is Ecology? Study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment. Study of interactions.
ES Ecology. Abiotic Factors Nonliving factors in an environment Examples: –Air currents –Temperature –Moisture –Light –Soil Biotic Factors Biosphere –
36.1 Feeding relationships determine the path of energy and chemicals in the ecosystem.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 5 Environment: The Science behind the Stories 4th Edition Withgott/Brennan.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu UNIT ONE: General Ecology and Population Part 1: Content Food Chains,
By: Geoffrey Powers CHAPTER 3 REVIEW. 1. Atmosphere is a thin layer of gases surrounding earth’s surface. The atmosphere consists of several layers of.
Chapter 3 Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work?
Ecosystems: Components, Energy Flow, and Matter Cycling Chapter 3 The Earth as a System Ecosystems Food Webs and Energy Flow Productivity in Ecosystems.
Ecosystems Reading: Freeman Chapter 54. n An ecosystem is the unit composed of all the living things in a single place at a given time, in addition to,
Ch. 54 Ecosystems. An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact. The dynamics.
Ecology The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment.
Unit 02 Life on Earth I. Chapter 3 The Big Picture: Systems of Change.
Ecology. What is Ecology? Ecology is the study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment. Ecology is the study of interactions.
Chapter 51 Ecosystems. n Population: all the individuals of a certain species that live in a particular area n Community: all the different species that.
Ecology. Ecology is the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment (soil, water, climate…) ECO.
Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology Section 1: Organisms and Their Relationships Section 2: Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem.
Topic 5.1 / Option G.2 Ecosystem Ecology 1 Matter and Energy Flow in Ecosystems Assessment Statements: , G G.1.10, G.2.1 – G.2.5.
How Ecosystems Work Chapter 3 You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through. Ilya Ehrenburg, Russian.
Chapter 4: Ecosystems, Ecology, and Food Webs Doug Friedman, Jane Beiner, Shayna Benavidez.
NUTRIENT CYCLES READINGS: FREEMAN Chapter 54. NUTRIENT CYCLES: ECOSYSTEM TO ECOSPHERE Nutrient cycling occurs at the local level through the action of.
End Show Slide 1 of 33 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ecology II - Cycles of Matter.
Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems Chapter 4: Population Ecology Chapter 5: Biodiversity and Conservation.
3.4 Workbook Review *Vocab *Key Questions (at top of wkbk) *What is important about each cycle?
Biology CST Review PowerPoint in Ecology. ACCORDING TO THE BLUEPRINTS… 6. Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects. As a basis.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual.
Take Practice Test: On a separate sheet of paper write down numbers through 40. Indicate which ones you got correct with + or -. Use the.
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