Presentation on theme: "PROPERTIES OF ALKANES & ALKENES IT IS BETTER TO KEEP YOUR MOUTH CLOSED AND BE THOUGHT A FOOL THAN TO OPEN YOUR MOUTH AND REMOVE ALL DOUBT. MARK TWAIN Ch.14."— Presentation transcript:
PROPERTIES OF ALKANES & ALKENES IT IS BETTER TO KEEP YOUR MOUTH CLOSED AND BE THOUGHT A FOOL THAN TO OPEN YOUR MOUTH AND REMOVE ALL DOUBT. MARK TWAIN Ch.14 J.C. Rowe Windsor University School of Medicine
Chain Length & the State of Matter of Organic Compounds Chain length (# of carbons in the chain) State of matter 1-4gas 5-15liquid Greater than 15 solid
Prefix Names/Substituents Chain lengthPrefix name 1Meth- 2Eth- 3Prop- 4But- 5Pent- 6Hex- Prefix names & chain lengthSome nonmetal substituents Element or group Name of group (halide) -F Fluoro- -ClChloro- -BrBromo- -IIodo- -NH2Amino-
Structures : alkanes vs. alkenes ALKANE (has single bonds)ALKENE (has double bonds)
Combustion of alkanes Substitution of alkanes Cracking of alkanes REACTIONS of ALKANES
Combustion of alkanes You can burn them - destroying the whole molecule. Complete combustion (given sufficient oxygen) of any hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide and water. Incomplete combustion (where there isn't enough oxygen present) can lead to the formation of carbon or carbon monoxide.
Substitution of alkanes You can react them with some of the halogens, breaking carbon-hydrogen bonds. Substitution reactions happen in which hydrogen atoms in the methane are replaced one at a time by chlorine atoms. You end up with a mixture of chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane (chloroform) and tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride).
Substitution reactions Cont’d.
Cracking of alkanes You can crack them, breaking carbon-carbon bonds Cracking is the name given to breaking up large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller and more useful bits. This is achieved by using high pressures and temperatures without a catalyst, or lower temperatures and pressures in the presence of a catalyst.
One possible reaction involving the hydrocarbon C 15 H 32 might be:
Or, showing more clearly what happens to the various atoms and bonds : The ethene and propene are important materials for making plastics or producing other organic chemicals. The octane is one of the molecules found in petrol (gasoline).
Cracking: catalytic vs. thermal The alkane is brought into contact with the catalyst at a temperature of about 500°C and moderately low pressures. high temperatures(typically in the range of 450°C to 750°C) and pressures (up to about 70 atmospheres) are used to break the large hydro-carbons into smaller ones. Thermal cracking gives mixtures of products containing high proportions of hydrocarbons with double bonds - alkenes Catalytic cracking Thermal cracking
Combustion of alkenes Substitution of alkenes Addition reactions : Hydrogenation Hydrohalogenation Hydration Polymerisation. REACTIONS of ALKENES
Combustion of alkenes The alkenes are highly flammable and burn readily in air, forming carbon dioxide and water. For example, ethene burns as follows : C2H4 (g)+ 3 O2 (g) ==> 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)
Substitution of alkenes A substitution reaction involves replacings the hydrogen atoms of the alkene molecule with halogen atoms. Note that the double bond does not break during this reaction. Substitution reactions are rare for alkenes, therefore extreme conditions, such as high temperature & pressure &/or a catalyst, are needed to force the reaction.
Addition reactions of alkenes Alkenes contain the unsaturated C=C functional group which characteristically undergo addition reactions. This is driven by the conversion of the weaker π bond into 2 new, stronger σ bonds.
Hydrogenation of Alkenes Alkenes can be reduced to alkanes with H 2 in the presence of metal catalysts such as Pt, Pd, Ni or Rh. The two new C-H (sigma) σ bonds are formed simultaneously from H atoms absorbed into the metal surface.
Halogenation of Alkenes overall transformation : C=C to X-C-C-X Reagent : normally the halogen (e.g. Br 2 ) in an inert solvent like methylene chloride, CH 2 Cl 2.
Reaction of Alkenes with Hydrogen Halides When treated with HX alkenes form alkyl halides. Hydrogen halide reactivity order : HI > HBr > HCl > HF (paralleling acidity order).
Hydration of Alkenes When treated with aq. acid, most commonly H 2 SO 4, alkenes form alcohols.
Polymerisation of alkenes During the polymerisation of ethene, thousands of ethene molecules join together to make poly(ethene) - commonly called polythene. The number of molecules joining up is very variable, but is in the region of 2000 to
See attached folders (5 worksheets) Naming alkanes/alkenes
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