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Presentation on theme: "REACTIONS OF HYDROCARBONS"— Presentation transcript:


2 alkane + halogen  haloalkane +hydrogen halide
ALKANES Combustion (Extreme Oxidation) Alkane + O2  CO2 + H2O Incomplete combustion Alkane + O2  CO + H2 O Substitution (with halides) alkane + halogen  haloalkane +hydrogen halide CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl CH3Cl + Cl2  CH2Cl2 + HCl

3 ALKENES 1. Addition Reactions (breaking of the double bond)
A) Halogenation (adding halides) alkene + halogen haloalkane B) Hydrogenation (adding hydrogen) alkene + hydrogen alkane CH2=CH2 + H CH3CH3

4 C) Hydrohalogenation (adding hydrogen halides)
alkene + hydrogen halide haloalkane D) Hydration (adding water) alkene + water alcohol Hydrohalogenation and hydration follow Markovnikov’s Rule which states that the hydrogen is added to the carbon with the most hydrogen atoms originally bonded to it.

5 *Polymerization will be addressed later
2. Combustion (extreme oxidation) Alkene + O2  CO2 + H2O 3. Polymerization (forming long chains from small subunits) *Polymerization will be addressed later

6 ALKYNES 1. Addition Reactions (breaking of the multiple bond)
A) Halogenation (adding halides) alkyne + 2 halogens haloalkane alkyne + 1 halogen haloalkene

7 B) Hydrogenation (adding hydrogen)
alkyne + 2 hydrogen alkane

8 C) Hydrohalogenation (adding hydrogen halides)
alkyne hydrogen halides haloalkane

9 Reactions of Aromatics
1. Substitution A) With Halogens benzene + halogen halobenzene + hydrogen halide Note: Due to reduced reactivity of the ring bonds compared with double bonds, aromatics due not undergo addition reactions under normal conditions.

10 2. With Alkyl Halides ( not mentioned in textbook)
benzene + alkyl halide alkyl benzene + hydrogen halide 3. With Nitric Acid ( not mentioned in textbook) benzene + nitric acid nitrobenzene + water


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