3 ALKENES 1. Addition Reactions (breaking of the double bond) A) Halogenation (adding halides)alkene + halogen haloalkaneB) Hydrogenation (adding hydrogen)alkene + hydrogen alkaneCH2=CH2 + H CH3CH3
4 C) Hydrohalogenation (adding hydrogen halides) alkene + hydrogen halide haloalkaneD) Hydration (adding water)alkene + water alcoholHydrohalogenation and hydration follow Markovnikov’s Rule which states that the hydrogen is added to the carbon with the most hydrogen atoms originally bonded to it.
5 *Polymerization will be addressed later 2. Combustion (extreme oxidation)Alkene + O2 CO2 + H2O3. Polymerization (forming long chains from small subunits)*Polymerization will be addressed later
6 ALKYNES 1. Addition Reactions (breaking of the multiple bond) A) Halogenation (adding halides)alkyne + 2 halogens haloalkanealkyne + 1 halogen haloalkene
7 B) Hydrogenation (adding hydrogen) alkyne + 2 hydrogen alkane
8 C) Hydrohalogenation (adding hydrogen halides) alkyne hydrogen halides haloalkane
9 Reactions of Aromatics 1. SubstitutionA) With Halogensbenzene + halogen halobenzene + hydrogen halideNote: Due to reduced reactivity of the ring bonds compared with double bonds, aromatics due not undergo addition reactions under normal conditions.
10 2. With Alkyl Halides ( not mentioned in textbook) benzene + alkyl halide alkyl benzene + hydrogen halide3. With Nitric Acid ( not mentioned in textbook)benzene + nitric acid nitrobenzene + water