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REACTIONS OF HYDROCARBONS. 2.Substitution (with halides) alkane + halogen  haloalkane +hydrogen halide CH 4 + Cl 2  CH 3 Cl + HCl CH 3 Cl + Cl 2  CH.

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Presentation on theme: "REACTIONS OF HYDROCARBONS. 2.Substitution (with halides) alkane + halogen  haloalkane +hydrogen halide CH 4 + Cl 2  CH 3 Cl + HCl CH 3 Cl + Cl 2  CH."— Presentation transcript:

1 REACTIONS OF HYDROCARBONS

2 2.Substitution (with halides) alkane + halogen  haloalkane +hydrogen halide CH 4 + Cl 2  CH 3 Cl + HCl CH 3 Cl + Cl 2  CH 2 Cl 2 + HCl 1.Combustion (Extreme Oxidation) Alkane + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O ALKANES Incomplete combustion Alkane + O 2  CO + H 2 O

3 ALKENES 1.Addition Reactions (breaking of the double bond) A)Halogenation (adding halides) alkene + halogen haloalkane B)Hydrogenation (adding hydrogen) alkene + hydrogen alkane CH 2 =CH 2 + H 2 CH 3 CH 3

4 C)Hydrohalogenation (adding hydrogen halides) alkene + hydrogen halide haloalkane Hydrohalogenation and hydration follow Markovnikov’s Rule which states that the hydrogen is added to the carbon with the most hydrogen atoms originally bonded to it. D)Hydration (adding water) alkene + water alcohol

5 2.Combustion (extreme oxidation) Alkene + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O 3.Polymerization (forming long chains from small subunits) *Polymerization will be addressed later

6 ALKYNES 1.Addition Reactions (breaking of the multiple bond) A)Halogenation (adding halides) alkyne + 2 halogens haloalkane alkyne + 1 halogen haloalkene

7 B)Hydrogenation (adding hydrogen) alkyne + 2 hydrogen alkane

8 C) Hydrohalogenation (adding hydrogen halides) alkyne + 2 hydrogen halides haloalkane

9 Reactions of Aromatics 1.Substitution A)With Halogens benzene + halogen halobenzene + hydrogen halide Note: Due to reduced reactivity of the ring bonds compared with double bonds, aromatics due not undergo addition reactions under normal conditions.

10 2.With Alkyl Halides ( not mentioned in textbook) benzene + alkyl halide alkyl benzene + hydrogen halide 3.With Nitric Acid ( not mentioned in textbook) benzene + nitric acid nitrobenzene + water


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