Presentation on theme: "Organic Reactions A detailed study of the following: Dehydration Synthesis Addition Free Radical Reactions Substitution (SN1 & SN2) Elimination (E1 & E2)"— Presentation transcript:
Organic Reactions A detailed study of the following: Dehydration Synthesis Addition Free Radical Reactions Substitution (SN1 & SN2) Elimination (E1 & E2)
Dehydration Synthesis A reaction involving the formation of a single product through the formation & removal of water. These reactions usually involve reactions between an alcohol and something else.
What can be made using this process? Alcohol + alcohol Ether* Alcohol + acid Ester* Alcohol + ammonia Amine Alcohol + Acid Amide * These are discussed further
Dehydration of Alcohols to form Ethers Simple, symmetrical ethers can be formed from the intermolecular acid-catalyzed dehydration of 1° (or methyl) alcohols (a “substitution reaction”) 2° and 3° alcohols can’t be used because they eliminate (intramolecular dehydration) to form alkenes Unsymmetrical ethers can’t be made this way because a mixture of products results:
Mechanism of Formation of Ethers from Alcohols First, an alcohol is protonated by H 3 O + Next, H 2 O is displaced by another alcohol (substitution) Finally, a proton is removed by H 2 O to form the product
Combustion of alkanes Alkanes are unreactive as a family because of the strong C–C and C–H bonds as well as them being nonpolar compounds. At room temperature alkanes do not react with acids, bases, or strong oxidizing agents. Alkanes do undergo combustion in air (making them good fuels): 2C 2 H 6 (g) + 7O 2 (g) 4CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O(l) H = –2855 kJ Complete combustion produced carbon dioxide and water while incomplete may produces a combination of carbon monoxide, carbon and water in addition to carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide contributes to global warming while carbon monoxide is toxic; hemoglobin binds to carbon monoxide in preference to oxygen causing suffocation and even death.
Products of combustion Complete combustion produces: carbon dioxide water vapour while incomplete may produces a combination of : carbon monoxide carbon water vapour carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide contributes to global warming. Carbon monoxide is toxic; hemoglobin binds to carbon monoxide in preference to oxygen causing suffocation and even death.
Alkane Substitution Reaction In the presence of light alkanes undergo substitution reaction with halogens. RH + Br 2 RBr + HBr In a substitution reaction, one atom of a molecule is removed and replaced or substituted by another atom or group of atoms. Mechanism of subtitution reaction involves free radicals.
Free Radical Substitution reaction For a reaction between an alkane and bromine to occur, C-H and Br-Br bonds must break. The C-H bond is stronger than Br-Br bond Therefore, the reaction proceeds by first the breakage of Br-Br bond, which is brought about by UV light. Br-Br bond can be broken in one of two ways. or 1-bromohexane.
When the bond is broken, either the bond pair can be equally shared between the two atoms producing two bromine atoms (called free radicals), or The bond pair goes with one atom producing a positive and a negatively charged ions of bromine. The first type of bond breakage producing free radicals is referred to as a homolytic fission and the second heterolytic fission. Homolytic fission because the bond pairs are equally distributed, or particles that are the same in every way is produced. homolytic fission of the halogen takes place. In the next step, the free radical removes a hydrogen atom from the alkane forming hydrogen bromine and a free radical of the alkane. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -H + Br CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 + HBr Free Radical Substitution reaction
The free radical goes on to react with a molecule of chlorine and regenerate another chlorine free radical. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 + Br 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 Br + Br And so on. Because this reaction, once initiated, can keep itself going is referred to as a chain reaction. The reaction can conducted with any halogen and the mechanism would be the same. Not only that, more than one hydrogen can be substituted. 1,1 dibromohexane Free Radical Substitution reaction
R E P E A T I N G S T E P S Mechanism of chlorination of methane CHAIN REACTION “hydrogen abstraction” “dissociation”
4. Termination Steps These steps stop the chain reaction “recombinations” Mechanism of chlorination of methane
14 Reactions of Alkenes: Addition Reactions Hydrogenation of Alkenes – addition of H-H (H 2 ) to the π-bond of alkenes to afford an alkane. The reaction must be catalyzed by metals such as Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ni. H° hydrogenation = -136 KJ/mol C-C π-bond H-H C-H = 243 KJ/mol = 435 KJ/mol = 2 x -410 KJ/mol = -142 KJ/mol The catalysts is not soluble in the reaction media, thus this process is referred to as a heterogenous catalysis. The catalyst assists in breaking the -bond of the alkene and the H-H -bond. The reaction takes places on the surface of the catalyst. Thus, the rate of the reaction is proportional to the surface area of the catalyst.
15 Carbon-carbon -bond of alkenes and alkynes can be reduced to the corresponding saturated C-C bond. Other -bond bond such as C=O (carbonyl) and C N are not easily reduced by catalytic hydrogenation. The C=C bonds of aryl rings are not easily reduced.
16 Heats of Hydrogenation -an be used to measure relative stability of isomeric alkenes H° combustion : -2710 KJ/mol -2707 KJ/mol H° hydrogenation : -119 KJ/mol -115 KJ/mol trans isomer is ~4 KJ/mol more stable than the cis isomer trans isomer is ~3 KJ/mol more stable than the cis isomer The greater release of heat, the less stable the reactant.
17 Heats of Hydrogenation of Some Alkenes
18 Electrophilic Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Alkenes C-C -bond: H°= 368 KJ/mol C-C -bond: H°= 243 KJ/mol -bond of an alkene can act as a nucleophile!! Electrophilic addition reaction Bonds brokenBonds formed C=C -bond 243 KJ/molH 3 C-H 2 C–H -410 KJ/mol H–Br 366 KJ/molH 3 C-H 2 C–Br -283 KJ/mol calc. H° = -84 KJ/mol expt. H°= -84 KJ/mol
19 Regioselectivity of Hydrogen Halide Addition: Markovnikov's Rule Reactivity of HX correlates with acidity: slowest HF << HCl < HBr < HI fastest For the electrophilic addition of HX across a C=C bond, the H (of HX) will add to the carbon of the double bond with the most H’s (the least substitutent carbon) and the X will add to the carbon of the double bond that has the most alkyl groups.
20 Mechanism of electrophilic addition of HX to alkenes Regioselectivity determined by Markovnikov’s rule – which can be explained by comparing the stability of the intermediate carbocations
21 For the electrophilic addition of HX to an unsymmetrically substituted alkene: The more highly substituted carbocation intermediate is formed. More highly substituted carbocations are more stable than less substituted carbocations. (hyperconjugation) The more highly substituted carbocation is formed faster than the less substituted carbocation. Once formed, the more highly substituted carbocation goes on to the final product more rapidly as well.
22 Carbocation Rearrangements in Hydrogen Halide Addition to Alkenes - In reactions involving carbocation intermediates, the carbocation may sometimes rearrange if a more stable carbocation can be formed by the rearrangement. These involve hydride and. methyl shifts. Note that the shifting atom or group moves with its electron pair. A MORE STABLE CARBOCATION IS FORMED.
23 Free-radical Addition of HBr to Alkenes Polar mechanism (Markovnikov addition) Radical mechanism (Anti-Markovnikov addition) The regiochemistry of HBr addition is reversed in the presence of peroxides. Peroxides are radical initiators - change in mechanism
24 The regiochemistry of free radical addition of H-Br to alkenes reflects the stability of the radical intermediate.
25 Acid-Catalyzed Hydration of Alkenes The addition of water (H-OH) across the -bond of an alkene to give an alcohol; opposite of dehydration This addition reaction follows Markovnikov’s rule The more highly substituted alcohol is the product and is derived from The most stable carbocation intermediate. Reactions works best for the preparation of 3° alcohols
27 Mechanism for this reaction is the reverse of the acid-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols:
28 6.11: Thermodynamics of Addition-Elimination Equlibria How is the position of the equilibrium controlled? Le Chatelier’s Principle - an equilibrium will adjusts to any stress The hydration-dehydration equilibria is pushed toward hydration (alcohol) by adding water and toward alkene (dehydration) by removing water. Bonds brokenBonds formed C=C -bond 243 KJ/molH 3 C-H 2 C–H -410 KJ/mol H–OH 497 KJ/mol(H 3 C) 3 C–OH -380 KJ/mol calc. H° = -50 KJ/mol G° = -5.4 KJ/mol H° = -52.7 KJ/mol S° = -0.16 KJ/mol
29 The acid catalyzed hydration is not a good or general method for the hydration of an alkene. Oxymercuration: a general (2-step) method for the Markovnokov hydration of alkenes NaBH 4 reduces the C-Hg bond to a C-H bond
30 Addition of Halogens to Alkenes X 2 = Cl 2 and Br 2 (vicinal dihalide) Stereochemistry of Halogen Addition - 1,2-dibromide has the anti stereochemistry
Substitution Reaction with Halides If concentration of (1) is doubled, the rate of the reaction is doubled. bromomethane (1) (2) If concentration of (2) is doubled, the rate of the reaction is doubled. If concentration of (1) and (2) is doubled, the rate of the reaction quadruples. methanol
Substitution Reaction with Halides bromomethane (1) (2) methanol Rate law: rate = k [bromoethane][OH - ] this reaction is an example of a SN2 reaction. S stands for substitution N stands for nucleophilic 2 stands for bimolecular Rate law: rate = k [bromoethane][OH - ] this reaction is an example of a SN2 reaction. S stands for substitution N stands for nucleophilic 2 stands for bimolecular
Mechanism of SN2 Reactions The rate of reaction depends on the concentrations of both reactants. When the hydrogens of bromomethane are replaced with methyl groups the reaction rate slow down. The reaction of an alkyl halide in which the halogen is bonded to an asymetric center leads to the formation of only one stereoisomer Alkyl halideRelative rate 1200 40 1 ≈ 0
Mechanism of SN2 Reactions Hughes and Ingold proposed the following mechanism: Transition state Increasing the concentration of either of the reactant makes their collision more probable.
Mechanism of SN2 Reactions activation energy: G 1 activation energy: G 2 Steric effect Inversion of configuration (R)-2-bromobutane(S)-2-butanol Energy reaction coordinate
Factor Affecting SN2 Reactions relative rates of reaction pK a HX HO - + RCH 2 I RCH 2 OH + I - 30 000 -10 HO - + RCH 2 Br RCH 2 OH + Br - 10 000 -9 HO - + RCH 2 Cl RCH 2 OH + Cl - 200 -7 HO - + RCH 2 F RCH 2 OH + F - 1 3.2 relative rates of reaction pK a HX HO - + RCH 2 I RCH 2 OH + I - 30 000 -10 HO - + RCH 2 Br RCH 2 OH + Br - 10 000 -9 HO - + RCH 2 Cl RCH 2 OH + Cl - 200 -7 HO - + RCH 2 F RCH 2 OH + F - 1 3.2 The leaving group The nucleophile In general, for halogen substitution the strongest the base the better the nucleophile. pKaNuclephilicity
SN2 Reactions With Alkyl Halides an alcohol a thiol an ether a thioether an amine an alkyne a nitrile
Substitution Reactions With Halides If concentration of (1) is doubled, the rate of the reaction is doubled. If concentration of (2) is doubled, the rate of the reaction is not doubled. Rate law: rate = k [1-bromo-1,1-dimethylethane] this reaction is an example of a SN1 reaction. S stands for substitution N stands for nucleophilic 1 stands for unimolecular Rate law: rate = k [1-bromo-1,1-dimethylethane] this reaction is an example of a SN1 reaction. S stands for substitution N stands for nucleophilic 1 stands for unimolecular 1-bromo-1,1-dimethylethane1,1-dimethylethanol
Mechanism of SN1 Reactions The rate of reaction depends on the concentrations of the alkyl halide only. When the methyl groups of 1-bromo- 1,1-dimethylethane are replaced with hydrogens the reaction rate slow down. The reaction of an alkyl halide in which the halogen is bonded to an asymetric center leads to the formation of two stereoisomers Alkyl halideRelative rate ≈ 0 * 12 1 200 000 * a small rate is actually observed as a result of a SN2
Mechanism of SN1 Reactions C-Br bond breaks nucleophile attacks the carbocation Proton dissociation slow fast
Mechanism of SN1 Reactions G G Rate determining step Carbocation intermediate R + + X - R-OH 2 + R-OH
Mechanism of SN1 Reactions Same configuration as the alkyl halide Inverted configuration relative the alkyl halide
Factor Affecting SN1 reaction Two factors affect the rate of a SN1 reaction: The ease with which the leaving group dissociate from the carbon The stability of the carbocation Two factors affect the rate of a SN1 reaction: The ease with which the leaving group dissociate from the carbon The stability of the carbocation The more the substituted the carbocation is, the more stable it is and therefore the easier it is to form. As in the case of SN2, the weaker base is the leaving group, the less tightly it is bonded to the carbon and the easier it is to break the bond The reactivity of the nucleophile has no effect on the rate of a SN1 reaction
Comparison SN1 – SN2 SN1SN2 A two-step mechanismA one-step mechanism A unimolecular rate-determining stepA bimolecular rate-determining step Products have both retained and inverted configuration relative to the reactant Product has inverted configuration relative to the reactant Reactivity order: 3 o > 2 o > 1 o > methyl Reactivity order: methyl > 1 o > 2 o > 3 o
Elimination Reactions 1-bromo-1,1-dimethylethane2-methylpropene Rate law: rate = k [1-bromo-1,1-dimethylethane][OH - ] this reaction is an example of a E2 reaction. E stands for elimination 2 stands for bimolecular Rate law: rate = k [1-bromo-1,1-dimethylethane][OH - ] this reaction is an example of a E2 reaction. E stands for elimination 2 stands for bimolecular
The E2 Reaction A proton is removed Br - is eliminated The mechanism shows that an E2 reaction is a one-step reaction
Elimination Reactions If concentration of (1) is doubled, the rate of the reaction is doubled. If concentration of (2) is doubled, the rate of the reaction is not doubled. Rate law: rate = k [1-bromo-1,1-dimethylethane] this reaction is an example of a E1 reaction. E stands for elimination 1 stands for unimolecular Rate law: rate = k [1-bromo-1,1-dimethylethane] this reaction is an example of a E1 reaction. E stands for elimination 1 stands for unimolecular 1-bromo-1,1-dimethylethane2-methylpropene
The E1 Reaction The alkyl halide dissociate, forming a carbocation The base removes a proton The mechanism shows that an E1 reaction is a two-step reaction
Products of Elimination Reaction 2-bromobutane 2-butene 1-butene 80% 20% The most stable alkene is the major product of the reaction for both E1 and E2 reaction The greater the number of alkyl substituent the more stable is the alkene For both E1 and E2 reactions, tertiary alkyl halides are the most reactive and primary alkyl halides are the least reactive 30% 50%
Competition Between SN2/E2 and SN1/E1 rate = k1[alkyl halide] + k2[alkyl halide][nucleo.] + k3[alkyl halide] + k2[alkyl halide][base] SN1 SN2 E1 E2 SN2 and E2 are favoured by a high concentration of a good nucleophile/strong base SN1 and E1 are favoured by a poor nucleophile/weak base, because a poor nucleophile/weak base disfavours SN2 and E2 reactions SN2 and E2 are favoured by a high concentration of a good nucleophile/strong base SN1 and E1 are favoured by a poor nucleophile/weak base, because a poor nucleophile/weak base disfavours SN2 and E2 reactions
Competition Between Substitution and Elimination SN2/E2 conditions: In a SN2 reaction: 1 o > 2 o > 3 o In a E2 reaction: 3 o > 2 o > 1 o In a SN2 reaction: 1 o > 2 o > 3 o In a E2 reaction: 3 o > 2 o > 1 o 90% 10% 25% 75% 100%
Competition Between Substitution and Elimination SN1/E1 conditions: All alkyl halides that react under SN1/E1 conditions will give both substitution and elimination products (≈50%/50%)
Summary of Elimination & Substitution Reactions Alkyl halides undergo two kinds of nucleophilic subtitutions: SN1 and SN2, and two kinds of elimination: E1 and E2. SN2 and E2 are bimolecular one-step reactions SN1 and E1 are unimolecular two step reactions SN1 lead to a mixture of stereoisomers SN2 inverts the configuration od an asymmetric carbon The major product of a elimination is the most stable alkene SN2 are E2 are favoured by strong nucleophile/strong base SN2 reactions are favoured by primary alkyl halides E2 reactions are favoured by tertiary alkyl halides