2 Using the Periodic Table Atomic number – the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom or the number of electrons in the nucleus of an atom.ALWAYS TRUE!!!!!The elements are inorder of Periodic Tableby the # of protons presentin the nucleus.
3 Using the Periodic Table Mass number – the TOTAL number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom; may change.
4 Using the Periodic Table Ions:1. Ionization – the process of adding electrons to or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms.2. Ion – an atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons and therefore has a net electric charge.
5 Using the Periodic Table Ions:Cation – an ion with a positive charge. (Lithium, Li)Li+
6 IonsAnion – an ion with a negative charge (Flourine, F)F-
7 Using the Periodic Table Isotopes- any atoms having the same number of protons but DIFFERENT number of neutrons.See fig 3-17 on pg 84 in textbook
11 Cs 133 55 EXAMPLE How many protons, neutrons and electrons are found in an atom of13355CsAtomic number = protons and electronsThere are 55 protons and 55 electronsMass number = sum of protons and neutrons133 – 55 = 78There are 78 neutrons
12 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) – a quantity equal to 1/12 of the mass of a Carbon-12 atom Average Atomic Mass- the weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
13 Organization of the P.T.Periodic Law: properties of elements tend to change in a regular pattern when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, or number of protons in their atoms.
14 The Periodic Table Over 100 years ago, the chemist Mendeleev arranged the known elements in orderof increasing atomic mass.He noticed a repeating pattern in theproperties of the elements.He designed a table with rows and columns toshow the repeating patterns.
15 The Periodic TableMendeleev left blank spaces in his table when the properties of the elements above and below did not seem to match.The existence of unknown elements was predicted by Mendeleev on the basis of the blank spaces.When the unknown elements were discovered,it was found that Mendeleev had closelypredicted the properties of the elements aswell as their discovery.
16 In the Modern Periodic Table . . . Elements are arranged by increasing atomic numbers.The term “periodic” part means that similar properties repeat every so often.There are currently 118 known elements.
17 Rows of the Periodic Table The beginning of the row is where the patterns that Mendeleev discovered begin repeating again.
18 What the table tells you . . . Each box contains information about one of the elements.- Atomic Number- Chemical Symbol- Name of Element- Atomic MassSome tables give more information for each element.
19 Periodic TableThe color of the box tells you if the state of the element at room temperature and pressure is a solid, liquid, or gas.Most are solids, some are gases, and two are liquids.The stair-step line separates metals from non-metals.Metals are to the left of the stair-step line; non-metals are to the right.
20 Using the Periodic Table 1. Period a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table2. Determines electron arrangement
21 Using the Periodic Table Groups (family) – a vertical column of elements in the periodic table.Same number of valence electrons in each group therefore they have similar properties.Examples: Cl (Chlorine) and F (Flourine)These are both Halogens and have very similar properties.
22 Columns on the Periodic Table There are 18columns orgroups.The elements ineach groupresemble eachother – the reactsimilarly to othersubstances.
23 How are elements classified? A: Metals vs. Nonmetals1: Elements can be put in various types of categories based on their physical and chemical properties.A common physical property used to classify elements are metallic and nonmetallic properties.
24 Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetalsNonmetalsMetals
25 Periodic Table: The three broad Classes Main, Transition, Rare Earth Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth)
26 Metals vs Nonmetals Metallic properties include: A. Shiny B. Conduct Heat/ElectricityC. Ductile/MalleableD. Have a positive Oxidation NumberE. Found on the Left/Middle of the Periodic Table
27 Metals vs Nonmetals Nonmetallic properties include: a. Dull b. Poor conductor of Heat/Electricity (INSULATORS)c. Brittled. Have a Negative Oxidation Numbere. Found on the Right Side of P.T.
28 Metals vs NonmetalsSome elements have properties of both metals and nonmetals and are referred to as metalloids.Metalloids are usually nonmetals that can conduct heat and electricity.The metalloids are located between the metal and nonmetal sides of the periodic table.
29 Metals vs NonmetalsThere are 109 total elements on the periodic table.Out of the 109 elements, 84 are metals, 17 nonmetals and 8 metalloids (semiconductors)
30 Families FAMILIES OF ELEMENTS Elements are put into families based on similarities of chemical properties.
31 Families Families of Periodic Table a. ALKALI METALS – 1 (IA) b. ALKALINE EARTH METALS – 2 (IIA)c. TRANSITION METALS – 3-12 (B Groups)d. HALOGEN GROUP – 17 (VIIA)e. NOBLE GASES – 18 (VIIIA)
32 ALKALIE METALS (IA) ALL HAVE ONLY 1 VALENCE ELECTRON Group IA elements on P.T.With EXCEPTION of Hydrogen (H), they are the MOST Metallic elements on the table.Best conductors of heat and electricityMost reactive metals on earthNever found free, always found in a compound.ALL HAVE ONLY 1 VALENCE ELECTRON
33 Alkaline Earth Metals (IIA) Group IIA on P.T.Not as reactive as the group IA metalsStill very reactiveNever found free in natureALL HAVE 2 VALENCE ELECTRONS
34 TRANSITION METALS (IIIB – IIB) A majority of the elements on the periodic table are transition metals.Names given based on their decreasing metallic characteristics as one moves from the left to the right side of the periodic table.
35 HALOGENS Found in group VIIA Known as the Salt Forming elements HALO- means “salt forming”Most reactive nonmetalsNEVER found free in natureUsually found in salt compounds containing a metal from either alkali or alkaline earth metal families.
36 NOBLE GASESGroup VIIIAALL Nonreactive NonmetalsOnly elements known that have a naturally FULL Valence Shell (Outer energy level)Since nonreactive, then they will ALWAYS be found FREE in nature and NEVER in a compound.
37 Periodic Table e- configuration from the periodic table (To be covered in future chapters) Li2s1Be2s2B2p1C2p2B2p1N2p3O2p4F2p5Ne2p6Na3s1Mg3s2Al3p1Si3p2P3p3S3p4Cl3p5Ar3p6K4s1Ca4s2Sc3d1Ti3d2V3d3Cr4s13d5Mn3d5Fe3d6Co3d7Ni3d8Cu4s13d10Zn3d10Ga4p1Ge4p2As4p3Se4p4Be4p5Kr4p6Rb5s1Sr5s2Y4d1Zr4d2Nb4d3Mo5s14d5Tc4d5Ru4d6Rh4d7Ni4d8Ag5s14d10Cd4d10In5p1Sn5p2Sb5p3Te5p4I5p5Xe5p6Cs6s1Ba6s2La5d1Hf5d2Ta5d3W6s15d5Re5d5Os5d6Ir5d7Ni5d8Au6s15d10Hg5d10Tl6p1Pb6p2Bi6p3Po6p4At6p5Rn6p6Fr7s1Ra7s2Ac6d1Rf6d2Db6d3Sg7s16d5Bh6d5Hs6d6Mt6d7
38 Summary Periodic Table: Map of the Building block of matter Type: Metal, metalloid and NonmetalGroupings: Representative or main, transition and Lanthanide/Actinides (rare)Family: Elements in the same column have similar chemical property because of similar valence electronsAlkali Metal, Alkaline Earth Metal, halogens, noble gasesPeriod: Elements in the same row have valence electrons in the same shell.