# A Guided Tour of the Periodic Table

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A Guided Tour of the Periodic Table
Section 3.2

Using the Periodic Table
Atomic number – the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom or the number of electrons in the nucleus of an atom. ALWAYS TRUE!!!!! The elements are in order of Periodic Table by the # of protons present in the nucleus.

Using the Periodic Table
Mass number – the TOTAL number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom; may change.

Using the Periodic Table
Ions: 1. Ionization – the process of adding electrons to or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms. 2. Ion – an atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons and therefore has a net electric charge.

Using the Periodic Table
Ions: Cation – an ion with a positive charge. (Lithium, Li) Li+

Ions Anion – an ion with a negative charge (Flourine, F) F-

Using the Periodic Table
Isotopes- any atoms having the same number of protons but DIFFERENT number of neutrons. See fig 3-17 on pg 84 in textbook

Charge (if ion) Atomic Mass Symbol Atomic Number

Hydrogen Protons: 1 Neutrons: 0 Electrons: 1 H 1 1

Sodium Protons: 11 Neutrons: 12 Electrons: 11 Na 23 11

Cs 133 55 EXAMPLE How many protons, neutrons and
electrons are found in an atom of 133 55 Cs Atomic number = protons and electrons There are 55 protons and 55 electrons Mass number = sum of protons and neutrons 133 – 55 = 78 There are 78 neutrons

Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) – a quantity equal to 1/12 of the mass of a Carbon-12 atom
Average Atomic Mass- the weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element.

Organization of the P.T. Periodic Law: properties of elements tend to change in a regular pattern when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, or number of protons in their atoms.

The Periodic Table Over 100 years ago, the chemist Mendeleev arranged
the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass. He noticed a repeating pattern in the properties of the elements. He designed a table with rows and columns to show the repeating patterns.

The Periodic Table Mendeleev left blank spaces in his table when the properties of the elements above and below did not seem to match. The existence of unknown elements was predicted by Mendeleev on the basis of the blank spaces. When the unknown elements were discovered, it was found that Mendeleev had closely predicted the properties of the elements as well as their discovery.

In the Modern Periodic Table . . .
Elements are arranged by increasing atomic numbers. The term “periodic” part means that similar properties repeat every so often. There are currently 118 known elements.

Rows of the Periodic Table
The beginning of the row is where the patterns that Mendeleev discovered begin repeating again.

What the table tells you . . .
Each box contains information about one of the elements. - Atomic Number - Chemical Symbol - Name of Element - Atomic Mass Some tables give more information for each element.

Periodic Table The color of the box tells you if the state of the element at room temperature and pressure is a solid, liquid, or gas. Most are solids, some are gases, and two are liquids. The stair-step line separates metals from non-metals. Metals are to the left of the stair-step line; non-metals are to the right.

Using the Periodic Table
1. Period  a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table 2. Determines electron arrangement

Using the Periodic Table
Groups (family) – a vertical column of elements in the periodic table. Same number of valence electrons in each group therefore they have similar properties. Examples: Cl (Chlorine) and F (Flourine) These are both Halogens and have very similar properties.

Columns on the Periodic Table
There are 18 columns or groups. The elements in each group resemble each other – the react similarly to other substances.

How are elements classified?
A: Metals vs. Nonmetals 1: Elements can be put in various types of categories based on their physical and chemical properties. A common physical property used to classify elements are metallic and nonmetallic properties.

Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement
Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals Nonmetals Metals

Periodic Table: The three broad Classes Main, Transition, Rare Earth
Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth)

Metals vs Nonmetals Metallic properties include: A. Shiny
B. Conduct Heat/Electricity C. Ductile/Malleable D. Have a positive Oxidation Number E. Found on the Left/Middle of the Periodic Table

Metals vs Nonmetals Nonmetallic properties include: a. Dull
b. Poor conductor of Heat/Electricity (INSULATORS) c. Brittle d. Have a Negative Oxidation Number e. Found on the Right Side of P.T.

Metals vs Nonmetals Some elements have properties of both metals and nonmetals and are referred to as metalloids. Metalloids are usually nonmetals that can conduct heat and electricity. The metalloids are located between the metal and nonmetal sides of the periodic table.

Metals vs Nonmetals There are 109 total elements on the periodic table. Out of the 109 elements, 84 are metals, 17 nonmetals and 8 metalloids (semiconductors)

Families FAMILIES OF ELEMENTS
Elements are put into families based on similarities of chemical properties.

Families Families of Periodic Table a. ALKALI METALS – 1 (IA)
b. ALKALINE EARTH METALS – 2 (IIA) c. TRANSITION METALS – 3-12 (B Groups) d. HALOGEN GROUP – 17 (VIIA) e. NOBLE GASES – 18 (VIIIA)

ALKALIE METALS (IA) ALL HAVE ONLY 1 VALENCE ELECTRON
Group IA elements on P.T. With EXCEPTION of Hydrogen (H), they are the MOST Metallic elements on the table. Best conductors of heat and electricity Most reactive metals on earth Never found free, always found in a compound. ALL HAVE ONLY 1 VALENCE ELECTRON

Alkaline Earth Metals (IIA)
Group IIA on P.T. Not as reactive as the group IA metals Still very reactive Never found free in nature ALL HAVE 2 VALENCE ELECTRONS

TRANSITION METALS (IIIB – IIB)
A majority of the elements on the periodic table are transition metals. Names given based on their decreasing metallic characteristics as one moves from the left to the right side of the periodic table.

HALOGENS Found in group VIIA Known as the Salt Forming elements
HALO- means “salt forming” Most reactive nonmetals NEVER found free in nature Usually found in salt compounds containing a metal from either alkali or alkaline earth metal families.

NOBLE GASES Group VIIIA ALL Nonreactive Nonmetals Only elements known that have a naturally FULL Valence Shell (Outer energy level) Since nonreactive, then they will ALWAYS be found FREE in nature and NEVER in a compound.

Periodic Table e- configuration from the periodic table (To be covered in future chapters)
Li 2s1 Be 2s2 B 2p1 C 2p2 B 2p1 N 2p3 O 2p4 F 2p5 Ne 2p6 Na 3s1 Mg 3s2 Al 3p1 Si 3p2 P 3p3 S 3p4 Cl 3p5 Ar 3p6 K 4s1 Ca 4s2 Sc 3d1 Ti 3d2 V 3d3 Cr 4s13d5 Mn 3d5 Fe 3d6 Co 3d7 Ni 3d8 Cu 4s13d10 Zn 3d10 Ga 4p1 Ge 4p2 As 4p3 Se 4p4 Be 4p5 Kr 4p6 Rb 5s1 Sr 5s2 Y 4d1 Zr 4d2 Nb 4d3 Mo 5s14d5 Tc 4d5 Ru 4d6 Rh 4d7 Ni 4d8 Ag 5s14d10 Cd 4d10 In 5p1 Sn 5p2 Sb 5p3 Te 5p4 I 5p5 Xe 5p6 Cs 6s1 Ba 6s2 La 5d1 Hf 5d2 Ta 5d3 W 6s15d5 Re 5d5 Os 5d6 Ir 5d7 Ni 5d8 Au 6s15d10 Hg 5d10 Tl 6p1 Pb 6p2 Bi 6p3 Po 6p4 At 6p5 Rn 6p6 Fr 7s1 Ra 7s2 Ac 6d1 Rf 6d2 Db 6d3 Sg 7s16d5 Bh 6d5 Hs 6d6 Mt 6d7

Summary Periodic Table: Map of the Building block of matter
Type: Metal, metalloid and Nonmetal Groupings: Representative or main, transition and Lanthanide/Actinides (rare) Family: Elements in the same column have similar chemical property because of similar valence electrons Alkali Metal, Alkaline Earth Metal, halogens, noble gases Period: Elements in the same row have valence electrons in the same shell.

Iron Triad Iron (Fe) Cobalt (Co) Nickel (Ni)

Coinage Elements Copper (Cu) Silver (Ag) Gold (Au)

Mercury (Hg) and Bromine (Br)
Room Temp Mercury (Hg) and Bromine (Br)