Presentation on theme: "A Guided Tour of the Periodic Table Section 3.2. Using the Periodic Table Atomic number – the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom or the number."— Presentation transcript:
Using the Periodic Table Atomic number – the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom or the number of electrons in the nucleus of an atom. ALWAYS TRUE!!!!! The elements are in order of Periodic Table by the # of protons present in the nucleus.
Using the Periodic Table Mass number – the TOTAL number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom; may change.
Using the Periodic Table Ions: 1. Ionization – the process of adding electrons to or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms. 2. Ion – an atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons and therefore has a net electric charge.
Using the Periodic Table Ions: Cation – an ion with a positive charge. (Lithium, Li) Li +
Ions Anion – an ion with a negative charge (Flourine, F) F -
Using the Periodic Table neutrons Isotopes- any atoms having the same number of protons but DIFFERENT number of neutrons. See fig 3-17 on pg 84 in textbook
Symbol Atomic Mass Atomic Number Charge (if ion)
EXAMPLE How many protons, neutrons and electrons are found in an atom of 133 55 Cs Atomic number = protons and electrons There are 55 protons and 55 electrons Mass number = sum of protons and neutrons 133 – 55 = 78 There are 78 neutrons
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) – a quantity equal to 1/12 of the mass of a Carbon-12 atom Average Atomic Mass- the weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
Organization of the P.T. Periodic Law : properties of elements tend to change in a regular pattern when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, or number of protons in their atoms.
The Periodic Table Over 100 years ago, the chemist Mendeleev arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass. He noticed a repeating pattern in the properties of the elements. He designed a table with rows and columns to show the repeating patterns.
Mendeleev left blank spaces in his table when the properties of the elements above and below did not seem to match. The existence of unknown elements was predicted by Mendeleev on the basis of the blank spaces. When the unknown elements were discovered, it was found that Mendeleev had closely predicted the properties of the elements as well as their discovery. The Periodic Table
In the Modern Periodic Table... Elements are arranged by increasing atomic numbers. The term “periodic” part means that similar properties repeat every so often. There are currently 118 known elements.
Rows of the Periodic Table The beginning of the row is where the patterns that Mendeleev discovered begin repeating again.
What the table tells you... Each box contains information about one of the elements. - Atomic Number - Chemical Symbol - Name of Element - Atomic Mass Some tables give more information for each element.
Periodic Table The color of the box tells you if the state of the element at room temperature and pressure is a solid, liquid, or gas. Most are solids, some are gases, and two are liquids. The stair-step line separates metals from non- metals. Metals are to the left of the stair-step line; non- metals are to the right.
Using the Periodic Table 1. Period a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table 2. Determines electron arrangement
Using the Periodic Table Groups (family) – a vertical column of elements in the periodic table. valence electrons Same number of valence electrons in each group therefore they have similar properties. Examples: Cl (Chlorine) and F (Flourine) Halogens These are both Halogens and have very similar properties.
Columns on the Periodic Table There are 18 columns or groups. The elements in each group resemble each other – the react similarly to other substances.
How are elements classified? A: Metals vs. Nonmetals 1 : Elements can be put in various types of categories based on their physical and chemical properties. A common physical property used to classify elements are metallic and nonmetallic properties.
Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals Metals Nonmetals
Periodic Table: The three broad Classes Main, Transition, Rare Earth Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth)
Metals vs Nonmetals Metallic properties include: A. Shiny B. Conduct Heat/Electricity C. Ductile/Malleable D. Have a positive Oxidation Number E. Found on the Left/Middle of the Periodic Table
Metals vs Nonmetals Nonmetallic properties include: a. Dull b. Poor conductor of Heat/Electricity (INSULATORS) c. Brittle d. Have a Negative Oxidation Number e. Found on the Right Side of P.T.
Metals vs Nonmetals Some elements have properties of both metals and nonmetals and are referred to as metalloids. Metalloids are usually nonmetals that can conduct heat and electricity. The metalloids are located between the metal and nonmetal sides of the periodic table.
Metals vs Nonmetals There are 109 total elements on the periodic table. Out of the 109 elements, 84 are metals, 17 nonmetals and 8 metalloids (semiconductors)
Families FAMILIES OF ELEMENTS Elements are put into families based on similarities of chemical properties.
Families Families of Periodic Table a. ALKALI METALS – 1 (IA) b. ALKALINE EARTH METALS – 2 (IIA) c. TRANSITION METALS – 3-12 (B Groups) d. HALOGEN GROUP – 17 (VIIA) e. NOBLE GASES – 18 (VIIIA)
ALKALIE METALS (IA) Group IA elements on P.T. With EXCEPTION of Hydrogen (H), they are the MOST Metallic elements on the table. Best conductors of heat and electricity Most reactive metals on earth Never found free, always found in a compound. ALL HAVE ONLY 1 VALENCE ELECTRON
Alkaline Earth Metals (IIA) Group IIA on P.T. Not as reactive as the group IA metals Still very reactive Never found free in nature ALL HAVE 2 VALENCE ELECTRONS
TRANSITION METALS (IIIB – IIB) A majority of the elements on the periodic table are transition metals. Names given based on their decreasing metallic characteristics as one moves from the left to the right side of the periodic table.
HALOGENS Found in group VIIA Known as the Salt Forming elements HALO- means “salt forming” Most reactive nonmetals NEVER found free in nature Usually found in salt compounds containing a metal from either alkali or alkaline earth metal families.
NOBLE GASES Group VIIIA ALL Nonreactive Nonmetals Only elements known that have a naturally FULL Valence Shell (Outer energy level) Since nonreactive, then they will ALWAYS be found FREE in nature and NEVER in a compound.
Periodic Table e - configuration from the periodic table (To be covered in future chapters) B 2p 1 H 1s 1 Li 2s 1 Na 3s 1 K 4s 1 Rb 5s 1 Cs 6s 1 Fr 7s 1 Be 2s 2 Mg 3s 2 Ca 4s 2 Sr 5s 2 Ba 6s 2 Ra 7s 2 Sc 3d 1 Ti 3d 2 V 3d 3 Cr 4s 1 3d 5 Mn 3d 5 Fe 3d 6 Co 3d 7 Ni 3d 8 Zn 3d 10 Cu 4s 1 3d 10 B 2p 1 C 2p 2 N 2p 3 O 2p 4 F 2p 5 Ne 2p 6 He 1s 2 Al 3p 1 Ga 4p 1 In 5p 1 Tl 6p 1 Si 3p 2 Ge 4p 2 Sn 5p 2 Pb 6p 2 P 3p 3 As 4p 3 Sb 5p 3 Bi 6p 3 S 3p 4 Se 4p 4 Te 5p 4 Po 6p 4 Cl 3p 5 Be 4p 5 I 5p 5 At 6p 5 Ar 3p 6 Kr 4p 6 Xe 5p 6 Rn 6p 6 Y 4d 1 La 5d 1 Ac 6d 1 Cd 4d 10 Hg 5d 10 Ag 5s 1 4d 10 Au 6s 1 5d 10 Zr 4d 2 Hf 5d 2 Rf 6d 2 Nb 4d 3 Ta 5d 3 Db 6d 3 Mo 5s 1 4d 5 W 6s 1 5d 5 Sg 7s 1 6d 5 Tc 4d 5 Re 5d 5 Bh 6d 5 Ru 4d 6 Os 5d 6 Hs 6d 6 Rh 4d 7 Ir 5d 7 Mt 6d 7 Ni 4d 8 Ni 5d 8
Summary Periodic Table Periodic Table: Map of the Building block of matter Type Type: Metal, metalloid and Nonmetal Groupings: Representative or main, transition and Lanthanide/Actinides (rare) Family Family: Elements in the same column have similar chemical property because of similar valence electrons Alkali Metal, Alkaline Earth Metal, halogens, noble gases Period: Period: Elements in the same row have valence electrons in the same shell.