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The Periodic Table and the Elements

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Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table and the Elements"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Periodic Table and the Elements
Adapted from a Powerpoint by Dr. Fred Omega Garces

2 The Periodic Table and the Elements
What is the periodic table ? What information is obtained from the table ? How can elemental properties be predicted based on the Periodic Table?

3 Dmitri Mendeleev (1869) In 1869 Mendeleev (Russia) and Lothar Meyer (Germany) published nearly identical classification schemes for elements known at the time. The periodic table is based on the similarity of properties and reactivities exhibited by various elements. Later, Henri Moseley ( England, ) established that each element has a unique atomic number, which is how the current periodic table is organized.

4 The Periodic Table A map of the building block of matter.

5 Periodic Table Expanded View
The Periodic Table can be arranged by energy sub levels The s-block is Group IA and & IIA, the p-block is Group IIIA - VIIIA. The d-block is the transition metals, and the f-block are the Lanthanides and Actinide metals The way the periodic table usually shown is a compressed view. The Lanthanides and actinides (F block)are cut out and placed at the bottom of the table.

6 Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement
Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals Nonmetals Metals

7 Periodic Table: The three broad Classes Main, Transition, Rare Earth
Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth)

8 Reading the Periodic Table: Classification
Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Noble gases

9 Across the Periodic Table
Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (Rows 1-7) These elements have the same number of valence shells. 2nd Period 6th Period

10 Down the Periodic Table
Families are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, or 1-8 A,B) These elements have the same number of electrons in the outer most energy level , known as the valence shell. Alkali Family: 1 e- in the valence shell Halogen Family: 7 e- in the valence shell

11 Notable Families of the Periodic Table
Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members: Alkali Alkaline (earth) Transition Metals Noble Gas Halogen Chalcogens

12 Important Elements of Various Groups
Individual members of selected groups & their characteristics H He Li Na K Ca Mg Fe I Cl F P S Si O N C Al Zn Cu Ag Br

13 Periodic Table e- configurations are inherent in the periodic table
Li 2s1 Be 2s2 B 2p1 C 2p2 B 2p1 N 2p3 O 2p4 F 2p5 Ne 2p6 Na 3s1 Mg 3s2 Al 3p1 Si 3p2 P 3p3 S 3p4 Cl 3p5 Ar 3p6 K 4s1 Ca 4s2 Sc 3d1 Ti 3d2 V 3d3 Cr 4s13d5 Mn 3d5 Fe 3d6 Co 3d7 Ni 3d8 Cu 4s13d10 Zn 3d10 Ga 4p1 Ge 4p2 As 4p3 Se 4p4 Be 4p5 Kr 4p6 Rb 5s1 Sr 5s2 Y 4d1 Zr 4d2 Nb 4d3 Mo 5s14d5 Tc 4d5 Ru 4d6 Rh 4d7 Ni 4d8 Ag 5s14d10 Cd 4d10 In 5p1 Sn 5p2 Sb 5p3 Te 5p4 I 5p5 Xe 5p6 Cs 6s1 Ba 6s2 La 5d1 Hf 5d2 Ta 5d3 W 6s15d5 Re 5d5 Os 5d6 Ir 5d7 Ni 5d8 Au 6s15d10 Hg 5d10 Tl 6p1 Pb 6p2 Bi 6p3 Po 6p4 At 6p5 Rn 6p6 Fr 7s1 Ra 7s2 Ac 6d1 Rf 6d2 Db 6d3 Sg 7s16d5 Bh 6d5 Hs 6d6 Mt 6d7

14 Periodic Table: Electron behavior
The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of their electrons

15 2. Trend in Atomic Radius Atomic Radius:
The size of an atom is determined by the boundaries of the valence e-. Largest atomic species are those found in the lower left corner since these atoms have the largest n, but the smallest Zeff.

16 3. Trends in Ionization Energy
The energy required to remove the valence electron from an atom is known as the ionization energy. Largest toward upper right corner of periodic table since these atoms hold on to their valence e- the tightest.

17 4. Trend in Electron Affinity
The energy released when an electron is added to an atom. The electron affinity is highest among the elements of the upper right corner of the periodic table (excluding the noble gases) since these atoms have a great affinity for electrons.

18 Summary of Trends Periodic Table and Periodic Trends
1. Electron Configuration 3. Ionization Energy: Largest toward upper right 4. Electron Affinity: Most favorable upper right 2. Atomic Radius: Largest toward lower left

19 Summary Periodic Table: Map of the Building blocks of matter
Types : Metal, metalloid and Nonmetal Blocks: S,P, D, and F Representative or main = S and P Blocks Transition = D Block Lanthanide/Actanides = F Block Families Elements in the same column have similar or Groups: chemical properties because of similar numbers and types of valence electrons Alkali metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Chalcogens, Halogens, Noble gases Periods : Elements in the same row have valence electrons in the same energy level.

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