Presentation on theme: "9.17.00 1:37 PM1 3.3 Periodic Table The Periodic Table and the Elements Adapted from a Powerpoint by Dr. Fred Omega Garces."— Presentation transcript:
:37 PM1 3.3 Periodic Table The Periodic Table and the Elements Adapted from a Powerpoint by Dr. Fred Omega Garces
:37 PM2 3.3 Periodic Table The Periodic Table and the Elements What is the periodic table ? What information is obtained from the table ? How can elemental properties be predicted based on the Periodic Table?
:37 PM3 3.3 Periodic Table Dmitri MendeleevDmitri Mendeleev (1869) Dmitri Mendeleev In 1869 Mendeleev (Russia) and Lothar Meyer (Germany) published nearly identical classification schemes for elements known at the time. The periodic table is based on the similarity of properties and reactivities exhibited by various elements. Later, Henri Moseley ( England, ) established that each element has a unique atomic number, which is how the current periodic table is organized.
:37 PM4 3.3 Periodic Table The Periodic Table The Periodic Table A map of the building block of matter.
:37 PM5 3.3 Periodic Table Periodic Table Expanded View The Periodic Table can be arranged by energy sub levels The s-block is Group IA and & IIA, the p-block is Group IIIA - VIIIA. The d-block is the transition metals, and the f- block are the Lanthanides and Actinide metals The way the periodic table usually shown is a compressed view. The Lanthanides and actinides (F block)are cut out and placed at the bottom of the table.
:37 PM6 3.3 Periodic Table Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals Metals Nonmetals
:37 PM7 3.3 Periodic Table Periodic Table: The three broad Classes Main, Transition, Rare Earth Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth)
:37 PM9 3.3 Periodic Table Across the Periodic Table Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (Rows 1-7) These elements have the same number of valence shells. 2nd Period 6th Period
:37 PM Periodic Table Down the Periodic Table Families are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, or 1-8 A,B) These elements have the same number of electrons in the outer most energy level, known as the valence shell. Alkali Family: 1 e- in the valence shell Alkali Family: 1 e- in the valence shell Halogen Family: 7 e- in the valence shell Halogen Family: 7 e- in the valence shell
:37 PM Periodic Table Notable Families of the Periodic Table Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members: Alkali Alkaline (earth) Transition Metals Noble Gas HalogenChalcogens
:37 PM Periodic Table Important Elements of Various Groups Individual members of selected groups & their characteristics H He Li Na KCa Mg Fe I Cl F P SSi ONC Al Zn Cu Ag Br
:37 PM Periodic Table Periodic Table e - configurations are inherent in the periodic table B 2p 1 H 1s 1 Li 2s 1 Na 3s 1 K 4s 1 Rb 5s 1 Cs 6s 1 Fr 7s 1 Be 2s 2 Mg 3s 2 Ca 4s 2 Sr 5s 2 Ba 6s 2 Ra 7s 2 Sc 3d 1 Ti 3d 2 V 3d 3 Cr 4s 1 3d 5 Mn 3d 5 Fe 3d 6 Co 3d 7 Ni 3d 8 Zn 3d 10 Cu 4s 1 3d 10 B 2p 1 C 2p 2 N 2p 3 O 2p 4 F 2p 5 Ne 2p 6 He 1s 2 Al 3p 1 Ga 4p 1 In 5p 1 Tl 6p 1 Si 3p 2 Ge 4p 2 Sn 5p 2 Pb 6p 2 P 3p 3 As 4p 3 Sb 5p 3 Bi 6p 3 S 3p 4 Se 4p 4 Te 5p 4 Po 6p 4 Cl 3p 5 Be 4p 5 I 5p 5 At 6p 5 Ar 3p 6 Kr 4p 6 Xe 5p 6 Rn 6p 6 Y 4d 1 La 5d 1 Ac 6d 1 Cd 4d 10 Hg 5d 10 Ag 5s 1 4d 10 Au 6s 1 5d 10 Zr 4d 2 Hf 5d 2 Rf 6d 2 Nb 4d 3 Ta 5d 3 Db 6d 3 Mo 5s 1 4d 5 W 6s 1 5d 5 Sg 7s 1 6d 5 Tc 4d 5 Re 5d 5 Bh 6d 5 Ru 4d 6 Os 5d 6 Hs 6d 6 Rh 4d 7 Ir 5d 7 Mt 6d 7 Ni 4d 8 Ni 5d 8
:37 PM Periodic Table Periodic Table: Electron behavior The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of their electrons
:37 PM Periodic Table 2. Trend in Atomic Radius Atomic Radius: The size of an atom is determined by the boundaries of the valence e-. Largest atomic species are those found in the lower left corner since these atoms have the largest n, but the smallest Z eff.
:37 PM Periodic Table 3. Trends in Ionization Energy Ionization energy: The energy required to remove the valence electron from an atom is known as the ionization energy. Largest toward upper right corner of periodic table since these atoms hold on to their valence e- the tightest.
:37 PM Periodic Table 4. Trend in Electron Affinity Electron Affinity: The energy released when an electron is added to an atom. The electron affinity is highest among the elements of the upper right corner of the periodic table (excluding the noble gases) since these atoms have a great affinity for electrons.
:37 PM Periodic Table Summary of Trends Periodic Table and Periodic Trends 1. Electron Configuration 2. Atomic Radius: Largest toward lower left 3. Ionization Energy: Largest toward upper right 4. Electron Affinity: Most favorable upper right
:37 PM Periodic Table Summary Periodic Table Periodic Table: Map of the Building blocks of matter Types : Metal, metalloid and Nonmetal Blocks: S,P, D, and F Representative or main = S and P Blocks Transition = D Block Lanthanide/Actanides = F Block Families Elements in the same column have similar or Groups: chemical properties because of similar numbers and types of valence electrons Alkali metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Chalcogens, Halogens, Noble gases : Periods : Elements in the same row have valence electrons in the same energy level.