Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table and the Elements"— Presentation transcript:
1The Periodic Table and the Elements Adapted from a Powerpoint by Dr. Fred Omega Garces
2The Periodic Table and the Elements What is the periodic table ?What information is obtained from the table ?How can elemental properties be predicted based on the Periodic Table?
3Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)In 1869 Mendeleev (Russia) and Lothar Meyer (Germany) published nearly identical classification schemes for elements known at the time. The periodic table is based on the similarity of properties and reactivities exhibited by various elements. Later, Henri Moseley ( England, ) established that each element has a unique atomic number, which is how the current periodic table is organized.
4The Periodic Table A map of the building block of matter.
5Periodic Table Expanded View The Periodic Table can be arranged by energy sub levels The s-block is Group IA and & IIA, the p-block is Group IIIA - VIIIA. The d-block is the transition metals, and the f-block are the Lanthanides and Actinide metalsThe way the periodic table usually shown is a compressed view. The Lanthanides and actinides (F block)are cut out and placed at the bottom of the table.
6Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetalsNonmetalsMetals
7Periodic Table: The three broad Classes Main, Transition, Rare Earth Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth)
8Reading the Periodic Table: Classification Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Noble gases
9Across the Periodic Table Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (Rows 1-7)These elements have the same number of valence shells.2nd Period6th Period
10Down the Periodic Table Families are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, or 1-8 A,B)These elements have the same number of electrons in the outer most energy level , known as the valence shell.Alkali Family:1 e- in the valence shellHalogen Family:7 e- in the valence shell
11Notable Families of the Periodic Table Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members:AlkaliAlkaline (earth)Transition MetalsNoble GasHalogenChalcogens
12Important Elements of Various Groups Individual members of selected groups & their characteristicsHHeLiNaKCaMgFeIClFPSSiONCAlZnCuAgBr
13Periodic Table e- configurations are inherent in the periodic table Li2s1Be2s2B2p1C2p2B2p1N2p3O2p4F2p5Ne2p6Na3s1Mg3s2Al3p1Si3p2P3p3S3p4Cl3p5Ar3p6K4s1Ca4s2Sc3d1Ti3d2V3d3Cr4s13d5Mn3d5Fe3d6Co3d7Ni3d8Cu4s13d10Zn3d10Ga4p1Ge4p2As4p3Se4p4Be4p5Kr4p6Rb5s1Sr5s2Y4d1Zr4d2Nb4d3Mo5s14d5Tc4d5Ru4d6Rh4d7Ni4d8Ag5s14d10Cd4d10In5p1Sn5p2Sb5p3Te5p4I5p5Xe5p6Cs6s1Ba6s2La5d1Hf5d2Ta5d3W6s15d5Re5d5Os5d6Ir5d7Ni5d8Au6s15d10Hg5d10Tl6p1Pb6p2Bi6p3Po6p4At6p5Rn6p6Fr7s1Ra7s2Ac6d1Rf6d2Db6d3Sg7s16d5Bh6d5Hs6d6Mt6d7
14Periodic Table: Electron behavior The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of their electrons
152. Trend in Atomic Radius Atomic Radius: The size of an atom is determined by the boundaries of the valence e-. Largest atomic species are those found in the lower left corner since these atoms have the largest n, but the smallest Zeff.
163. Trends in Ionization Energy The energy required to remove the valence electron from an atom is known as the ionization energy. Largest toward upper right corner of periodic table since these atoms hold on to their valence e- the tightest.
174. Trend in Electron Affinity The energy released when an electron is added to an atom. The electron affinity is highest among the elements of the upper right corner of the periodic table (excluding the noble gases) since these atoms have a great affinity for electrons.
18Summary of Trends Periodic Table and Periodic Trends 1. Electron Configuration3. Ionization Energy: Largest toward upper right4. Electron Affinity: Most favorable upper right2. Atomic Radius: Largest toward lower left
19Summary Periodic Table: Map of the Building blocks of matter Types : Metal, metalloid and NonmetalBlocks: S,P, D, and FRepresentative or main = S and P BlocksTransition = D BlockLanthanide/Actanides = F BlockFamilies Elements in the same column have similaror Groups: chemical properties because of similarnumbers and types of valence electronsAlkali metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Chalcogens,Halogens, Noble gasesPeriods : Elements in the same row have valence electrons inthe same energy level.