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A. Atomic Mass Atomic mass = # p+ + n0The average atomic mass is the number at the bottom of each square Found by averaging the natural abundances of its isotopes Atomic mass = # p+ + n0
B. Isotopes Mass # Atomic #Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers. Nuclear symbol: Mass # Atomic # Hyphen notation: carbon-12
B. Isotopes © Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
B. Isotopes Chlorine-37 atomic #: mass #: # of protons:# of electrons: # of neutrons: 17 37 20
Organization Metallic Character Rows & Columns Table SectionsCh. 3 - The Periodic Table Organization Metallic Character Rows & Columns Table Sections
A. Metallic Character Metals Nonmetals Metalloids
Metals Good conductors of heat and electricityFound in Groups 1 & 2, middle of table in 3-12 and some on right side of table Have luster, are ductile and malleable
Alkali Metals Group 1 Very reactive Form +1 ions CationsExamples: H, Li, Na
Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2 Reactive Form 2+ ions CationsExamples: Be, Mg, Ca, etc
Transition Metals Groups 3-12 on the Periodic TableMuch less reactive than Alkali or Alkaline Earth Metals Only 1 that is a liquid at room temp Mercury – Hg Examples: Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, Cu, Ag, Au
Nonmetals Not good conductorsFound on right side of periodic table – AND hydrogen Usually brittle solids or gases
Halogens Group 17 Very reactive Form 1- ions AnionsExamples: F, Cl, Br, etc
Noble Gases Group 18 Unreactive, inert, “noble”Have a 0 charge, no ions Examples: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, etc
Metalloids Sometimes called semiconductorsForm the “stairstep” between metals and nonmetals Have properties of both metals and nonmetals Examples: B, Si, Sb, Te, As, Ge
State at Room TemperatureMost are solid State changes with change in temperature
B. Table Sections Representative Elements Transition MetalsInner Transition Metals
B. Table Sections Overall Configuration Lanthanides - part of period 6Actinides - part of period 7
C. Columns & Rows Group (Family) Period
Periodic Trends Terms Dot DiagramsCh. 3 - The Periodic Table Periodic Trends Terms Dot Diagrams
A. Terms Periodic Law Properties of elements repeat periodically when the elements are arranged by increasing atomic number.
A. Terms Valence Electrons Atomic Radiuse- in the outermost energy level Atomic Radius Measure of the size of an atom
B. Periodic Trends Group # = # of valence e- (except He)Families have similar reactivity. Period # = # of energy levels 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
C. Lewis Diagrams Dots represent the valence e- EX: SodiumEX: Chlorine
I. Development of the Modern Periodic Table (p )
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