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Tuesday, November 18 th Turn in homework – Age of Jackson vocab Test review quiz The Age of Jackson  Identify the key players in the election of 1824.

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Presentation on theme: "Tuesday, November 18 th Turn in homework – Age of Jackson vocab Test review quiz The Age of Jackson  Identify the key players in the election of 1824."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tuesday, November 18 th Turn in homework – Age of Jackson vocab Test review quiz The Age of Jackson  Identify the key players in the election of 1824 and its aftermath including the formation of new parties  The change which resulted in Jackson’s victory in the 1828 election  Identify the significant events of the Presidency of Andrew Jackson including the Trail of Tears Election of 1828 worksheet

2 ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON The Age of Jackson

3 Passing of the Torch On July 4, 1826 both Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died  During this period, the Founding Fathers who had worked to create and guide the nation passed away Left a political void which was hard to fill; a new generation of leaders was needed When Jefferson and Adams died, John Quincy Adams (J.Q.A) was in his first term as President  Not very effective or popular His chief political opponent was Andrew Jackson

4 Election of 1824 Election was to succeed James Monroe, last Founding Father to serve as President Election of 1824 between Jackson and J.Q.A was almost even bitter than the election in 1800  Jackson won the majority of the popular vote but failed to win a majority of the electoral votes  Went before the H.o.R. since neither Jackson or Adams received the necessary electoral votes Jackson was the first President from the West

5 Henry Clay and the Election During this period the most powerful individual in the H.o.R. was Henry Clay, Speaker of the House  Clay had actually run for President in the election but finished fourth Clay disliked Jackson and mistrusted his lack of political experience  Said that Jackson’s service in the War of 1812 did not qualify him for the complexities of being President Clay endorsed J.Q.A for President because he felt Adams would be more sympathetic to his beliefs  Adams supported Clay’s American System

6 Aftermath of the Election Even with the election over with, it did not stop the fighting Jackson’s supporters, or Jacksonians, accused J.Q.A of stealing the presidency  The Jacksonians received additional fuel when Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State which they called a corrupt bargain The bitterness of the election would set the tone for the rest of J.Q.A’s Presidency as well as Jackson’s eventual Presidency

7 New Parties By 1824 the old Democratic-Republican Party was near collapse  The election sealed the deal as the Dem.-Rep. vote was split four ways among the candidates Two new parties came out of the election

8 National Republicans Followed Adams and Clay and  Created to oppose the possibility of Jackson becoming President Focused on the American System:  Internal improvements  Supported tariffs and manufacturing  Supported nationalism Strong national government

9 Democrats Followed Jackson and Martin Van Buren  Created in response to Adams “stealing” of the presidency Focused on:  An agriculture economy, and opposed tariffs  Weak federal government

10 Election of 1828 Throughout Adams presidency, most states relaxed voting requirement rules which dramatically increased the number of people eligible to vote  No longer had to own property in order to vote in most states Jackson was quick to capitalize on the change  Characterized Adams as an intellectual elite who was not in touch with the common people  Showed himself as a humble, common man  Born to first-generation immigrants on the Western frontier  First President since Washington not to have a college degree Jackson won the election by a landslide by connecting with the people and a record number of people came to Washington to see him inaugurated

11 Andrew Jackson

12 Had a notorious temper  Observers likened him to a volcano, and only the most intrepid or recklessly curious cared to see it erupt.... typically followed by his own vow to hang the villain or blow him to perdition. Given his record – in duels, brawls, mutiny trials, and summary hearings – listeners had to take his vows seriously.  Had two regrets from his presidency, that he “had been unable to shoot Henry Clay or to hang John C. Calhoun” Got in a disagreement with Charles Dickinson who had insulted Jackson wife and refused to honor bets made at a horse track  The two met in May 1806 in Kentucky to settle the dispute in a duel  Dickinson shot Jackson in the chest, inches form his heart, Jackson then shot Dickinson in the chest and Dickinson bled to death  Jackson suffered medical conditions because of the bullet for the rest of his life

13 President Jackson Announced his appointees would only serve four years  Believed without turnover of people, the government would become corrupt and ineffective  Coincided with public corruption investigations into all executive offices Instituted a spoils system  Removed nearly ten percent of the federal employees, most from Adams’ administration  Replaced them with loyal Jacksonians  Ironically, may have brought in more corruption to the gov.

14 Assassination Attempt

15 Events of Jackson’s Presidency Jackson’s Presidency is known for four significant events:  Indian removal  Nullification crisis  National bank controversy  Panic of 1837

16 Jackson and Native Americans During the period there were two attitudes towards Native Americans  Wanted to displace Native Americans from their land and move them out West  Wanted to assimilate them into the American culture (conversion to Christianity) Jackson believed that assimilation could not work; only effective policy was to move Native Americans out West to avoid confrontation with white settlers

17 Indian Removal Act Under Jackson’s direction, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 which authorized the President to negotiate treaties with Indians which gave them territory beyond the Mississippi River in exchange for their lands in the East Jackson said of the Act that it was “not only liberal, but generous”  Based on his view that state governments should have the right to govern within their territory In several cases, Jackson used federal troops to force non-compliant Native Americans off the land  Included Choctaw, Sauk, Fox, Chicksaw, and Cherokee

18 Cherokee Fights Back The Cherokee fought back through the legal system  Marshall refused to hear the first case because Native Americans were not citizens nor foreigners but “domestic dependent nation” An American named Samuel Worcestor sued on behalf of the Cherokee  Had been a missionary living among the Cherokee but had been arrested for violating a Georgia law which prohibited white missionaries from living on Cherokee land

19 Worcester vs. Georgia In Worcester vs. Georgia, the Supreme Court recognized that the Cherokee were a distinct community  Georgia did not have the authority to regulate the Cherokee or invade their lands Jackson refused to honor the ruling saying, “John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it” Many Cherokee wanted to continue to fight but many began to favor relocation  Gov. recognized those Cherokee and signed a treaty with them which gave them land and 5 million dollars in exchange for their land

20 The Trail of Tears Involved most of the tribes in the East  Choctaw in 1831  Seminole in 1832  Creek in 1834  Chicksaw in 1837  Cherokee in 1838 The Cherokee began the trail in October of 1838 Jackson specifically ordered that the tribes travel over land and not water; wanted t0 punish the tribes 46,000 Native Americans were forced from their ancestral land and homes

21 Map of the Trail of Tears

22 Nu na da ul tsun yi (The Place Where They Cried) Along the way government officials stole their money, majority of their livestock was stolen Of the 17,000 Cherokee which started the trail, approximately 4,000- 6,00 died along the way “I fought through the War Between the States and have seen many men shot, but the Cherokee Removal was the cruelest work I ever knew.” Had to wait to cross the Ohio River by ferry and took shelter under a nearby bluff because of the cold  Many died due to the weather; others were murdered by locals  Those locals then sued the government for $35 a head because they had to bury the dead Cherokee

23 Thursday, November 20 th Take daily quiz Lesson on states’ rights and the national bank  Identify the significance of the nullification crisis and he the fight over the second B.U.S  Understand the broader fight over states’ rights Work on Rest in Peace Andrew Jackson worksheet

24 Daily Quiz What was Jackson’s reaction to Worcester vs. Georgia? Following the election of 1824, what was the corrupt bargain? What change occurred which allowed more men to vote? What were the two new parties which came out of the election of 1824? What was Jackson’s position on Native Americans?

25 States’ Rights and the National Bank

26 Tariff Raises the Issue of States’ Rights The Tariff of 1816 was passed with Southern support in part because the tariff rate would decrease over time Over time however, the South had gotten fed up with having to pay more for northern manufactured goods and believed the North was getting rich at their expense Issue came to a head in 1824 and 1828 when Congress passed additional tariffs which raised the tariff rates

27 Issue of the Tariff Highest tariff on imported goods up to that point South believed that the North was getting rich at the expense of the South  Called a “tariff of abomination” by John C. Calhoun

28 The Nullification Theory John C. Calhoun served as Vice-President for both Adams and Jackson  Initially supported tariffs because they protected American manufacturing  His home state of South Carolina was in a economic depression because of the low cotton prices and many there wondered if Calhoun still supported them In response Calhoun brought up the Nullification Theory  Questioned the legality of federal laws being applied to sovereign states  Viewed the Constitution as a compact between the states; therefore states could nullify, or reject, a law they viewed as unconstitutional  If the federal gov. did not recognize a states right to nullify a federal law, that state had the right to leave the Union

29 Webster-Hayne Debate on States’ Rights Took place between Senator Robert Haynes of South Carolina and Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts Highlighted the division in the country over the issue of secession and nullification Considered one of the greatest debates in American history  Took place at a party When asked his opinion, Jackson said “our union it must be preserved”

30 Peggy Eaton Affair (Real Housewives of the 1800s) Peggy Eaton was the wife of the Secretary of State Kept getting snubbed by the wives of the other cabinet members; especially Calhoun’s wife  Jackson demands that the cabinet make their wives apologize to Peggy  Jackson saw similarity in how his wife had been treated by the public Begins tossing out members of the cabinet loyal to Calhoun  Serves as a warning if they do not apologize

31 The Nullification Crisis In 1832 Congress passed the Tariff of 1832 which raised the rates again Outraged S.C. legislators declared that the tariffs were unconstitutional and if any attempt was made by the gov. to collect duties then S.C. would secede from the Union  The Nullification Convention which nullified the tariffs and said it would secede if force was used against the state Jackson, though a Southerner, believed that the declaring a law unconstitutional flouted the will of the Constitution and such an act would be treasonous  Persuaded Congress to pass the Force Bill, authorizing the use of force against S.C. or any state if it resisted paying duties under the tariffs

32 The Compromise Confrontation seemed inevitable until Clay came up with the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which would decrease tariff rates over the next ten years Both sides were able to claim victory with the agreement  S.C. held the Nullification Convention repealing ordinance nullifying the tariffs and, symbolically, nullified the Force Bill For now, a crisis had been averted “The tariff was only a pretext, and disunion and southern confederacy the real object. The next pretext will be the negro, or slavery question.“ Andrew Jackson

33 The National Bank During the crisis with S.C., Jackson was engaged in another battle over the National Bank While the charter of the bank was not supposed to expire until 1836, Clay and Webster introduced legislation to renew the charter early to make it a campaign issue  Hoped that Jackson would lose political support over a fight with the bank and he would not be reelected Underestimated Jackson’s political skill

34 Fight for the Bank Jackson vetoed the charter for the National Bank to be renewed; cast the bank as an elitist institution  The bank earned interest on taxes deposited there which it distributed to wealthy individuals, not the entire population  The bank gave extremely low loans to Congressmen which were not available to ordinary Americans “The bank is trying to kill me but I will kill it!”

35 King Andrew the First

36 Jackson’s Reelection After Jackson was reelected in 1832, he told the Secretary of the Treasury to put all government funds in specific state banks  Called “pet banks” because they were loyal to the Democratic Party The National Bank President tried to call in all loans owed but it backfired on him  Bank lost support from businesses and individuals Charter expired in 1836 and the National Bank became private; went bankrupt five years later

37 Opposition Unites: The Whig Party Main individuals included Henry Clay, John Q. Adams, and Daniel Webster Backed the ideals of the American System  Strong federal government including control of the banking system and a national currency  Supported tariffs Attracted individuals from the Democratic Party who were angry at Jackson’s leadership style

38 Martin Van Buren Jackson announced that he would not run for a third term and instead endorsed his V.P., Van Buren Van Buren easily won the 1837 election 1. The newly formed Whig Party was not able to agree on one candidate and ran three candidates against Van Buren 2. Jackson’s endorsement also was significant in helping Van Buren win the election Quickly had to deal with Jackson’s legacy

39 Jackson’s Financial Legacy When Jackson put federal money into friendly state banks, those banks began to widely print bank notes which could be redeemed for gold or silver People would take this useless currency to buy land from the federal government meaning the government was stuck with it  Jackson announced on August 15, 1836 that only gold or silver could be used to purchase federal land Caused people to rush the banks to redeem their bank notes for gold or silver to purchase land  Banks did not have enough silver or gold to cover the bank notes

40 Panic of 1837 By May 1837, situation had gotten much worse New York banks stopped accepting paper currency and other banks quickly followed suit Became known as the Panic of 1837  Banking system collapsed  Wiped out the savings of Americans and bankrupted hundreds of businesses  More than a third of the population was unemployed Van Buren tried to help by reducing federal government spending but only made the situation worse

41 Election of 1840 Van Buren was increasingly unpopular for being unable to stop the economic crisis The Whig Party took advantage by nominating William Henry Harrison for President  Portrayed Van Buren as a privileged aristocrat and Harrison as a common man  Campaigned on Harrison’s fame from the War of 1812  Created a campaign song called “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too”  Log Cabin Campaign – meant to show Harrison as a common man

42 Monday, November 24 th Turn in homework Take survey Take daily quiz Watch The Abolitionists

43 Daily Quiz What was the name of the theory in which states could strike down federal laws they deemed unconstitutional? Who settled the Nullification Issue? Who was the Whig Party formed in opposition to? What was the campaign slogan for Harrison during the election of 1840? What was Jackson’s financial legacy?

44 Monday, December 1 st Lesson on Women and Reform and the Second Great Awakening Review for test Start study guide

45 Women and Reform

46 Women’s Roles Customs demanded that Women restrict their activities to their home and family  Housework and caring for children were considered the only proper activities; became known as the cult of domesticity  Women could not vote or serve on juries  When a women married, any property she owned went to her husband and lacked guardianship over children

47 Mobilizing for Reform Women started becoming more politically active during the mid-1800s during the Abolition Movement

48 The Movements Temperance Movement: recognized drunkenness was a serious problem and attempted to ban alcohol Education Movement: campaigned for greater education opportunities for women  Brought along more women into the field of medicine The Suffrage Movement: get women the right to vote  Part of Seneca Falls Convention

49 Seneca Falls Convention Held in Seneca Falls, New York from July 19-20, 1848 First national convention on women’s rights Covered many issues regarding women’s rights but the most controversial was achieving the right to vote The convention issued the Declaration of Sentiments  Based upon the Declaration of Independence

50 Second Great Awakening Started in the 1830s because of the overall era of reforms and swept across the country  Started with preachers wanting to spread the word of personal salvation through religious activism, or evangelism Rejected the Calvinistic belief that your life, and where you ended up, was preordained  Core belief was that your actions determined whether or not you were going to heaven or hell  Insisted that people could improve themselves and society Abolitionists, women’s reform movements

51 Spread of the Message The message promoted by the Second Great Awakening was similar to Jacksonian democracy  Focused on the power of the common citizen and their responsibilities  Belief in a “democratic” God Delivered the messages in large forums  Could draw 20,000 or more people  Were very dramatic

52 The Forums

53 Stump Speaking

54 Wednesday, December 3 rd Turn in study guide Take test on Age of Jackson and Reform Work on vocab for Expansion and Build up to the Civil War


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