2 Outline Need for Planning Historical Forces Rural to Urban Shift Urban SprawlContributing FactorsProblems with Unplanned GrowthLand-Use Planning PrinciplesUrban Planning IssuesSmart GrowthFederal Government Land Use Issues
3 The Need For PlanningBetween 1/3 - 1/2 world’s surface altered by humans.Most land-use decisions are still based primarily on economic considerations or short-term needs rather than on unique analysis of the landscape.Once land has been converted to intensive human use, it is generally unavailable for other uses.
4 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use in North America Land Use in the United States:47% - Crops and livestock45% - Forests and natural areas5% - Intensive human useDiffers greatly from original conditions experienced by immigrants from New World.
5 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use in North America First U.S. colonists converted landscape to farming, and then to towns and cities.Waterways provided primary method of transportation.Allowed exploration and development of commerce.Early towns usually built near water and at transfer points between water systems.
7 Rural to Urban ShiftNorth America remained essentially rural until industrial growth began in last 1/3 of 1800’s.Industrial RevolutionIndustrial jobs to be found in cities.European ImmigrantsCongregated in, and subdivided cities.Offered variety of cultural, social, and artistic opportunities.
8 Migration from Central City to the Suburbs Industrial Revolution led to polluted, undesirable waterways.As roads and rail transport became more common, many left the waterway areas.Agricultural land surrounding towns was converted to housing.Land began to be viewed as a commodity, not as a non-renewable resource to be managed.
9 Suburb MigrationAs land prices in the city rose, people began to look for cheaper areas away from the city.% urban population lived in central cities.% urban population lived in central cities.
11 Suburb MigrationConvenience and personal automobiles escalated decentralized housing patterns and diminished importance of mass transit.Decreased energy efficiency.Increased cost of supplying utility services.
12 Suburb MigrationUrban Sprawl - Pattern of un-planned low density housing and commercial development outside of cities.Land-Use Practices:Zoning ordinances that isolate employment and shopping services away from housing locations.Low-density planning aimed at creating automobile access to increasing expanses of land.
13 Suburb Migration Three types of urban sprawl: Development of exclusive wealthy suburbs adjacent to the city.Tract Development - Construction of similar residential units over large areas.Ribbon Sprawl - Commercial / industrial buildings line highways connecting housing developments to central city.Megalopolis - Merge of cities into large, urban areas.
15 Factors That Contribute to Sprawl LifestyleIncreased wealth of population.Decentralized housing pattern is possible because high rate of automobile ownership allows ease of movement.EconomicBuilding on agricultural land less expensive.Tax laws encourage home development.
16 Factors That Contribute to Sprawl Planning and PolicyHistorically, little coordination of effort.Large number of political jurisdictions.Zoning ordinances prohibit land use mixing.Specify minimum lot and house sizes.Government subsidies.Local governments pay some costs of extending services into new areas.Alleviates costs to builders.
17 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth TransportationLittle thought to transportation corridors.Establishment of new corridors stimulates growth in nearby areas.Reliance on automobiles has required constant road building.In Los Angeles, 70% of city’s surface area dedicated to automobiles.Average person in U.S. spends 9 hrs/wk in an automobile.
18 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Air PollutionAs traffic increases, so does air pollution.Low Energy EfficiencyAutomobiles are inefficient transportation.Decentralized cities - longer commutes.Stop and go traffic patterns.Single family homes less efficient.
19 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Loss of Sense of CommunityIn many areas, people do not routinely walk through their neighborhood.Death of Central CityCurrently less than 10% of people work in the central city.Less income to support public services.Higher Infrastructure CostsExtension of municipal services.
20 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Loss of Open SpaceOftentimes open space planning left out of development plans.Loss of FarmlandFlat, well-drained land ideal for both farmland and urban development.Partial transformation often leads to whole transformation.
21 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Water Pollution ProblemsLarge impervious surface areas lead to high runoff and potential flooding.Floodplain ProblemsMany cities located on floodplains.Flat, nutrient rich.Development increases economic losses.Many communities have enacted floodplain zoning ordinances.
22 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Wetlands MisuseMany have been drained, filled, or used as landfills.U.S. has lost 53% of wetlands since the European immigration began (Not including Alaska).Wetlands play crucial role in reproductive phase of many organisms.Provide sediment filtration.
23 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Other Land-Use ConsiderationsGeological StatusEarthquake-Prone FaultsUnstable HillsidesFire-Prone AreasClimateWater Shortages
24 Land-Use Planning Principles Land-Use Planning - Evaluating needs and wants of a population, as well as land characteristics and value, and various alternative solutions to land uses before changes are made.Basic rule should be to make as few changes as possible.
25 Land-Use Planning Principles Evaluate and record unique geological, geographic, and biologic features.Preserve unique cultural or historical features.Conserve open space and environmental features.Calculate cost of additional changes required to accommodate altered land use.
26 Land-Use Planning Principles Plan for mixed uses in close proximity.Plan variety of transportation options.Set limits and require managed growth patterns with compact development.Encourage development in areas with existing infrastructure.
27 Mechanisms for Implementing Land-Use Plans Establish State / Regional Planning Agencies.More effective than larger agencies due to more logical natural boundaries.Purchase Land or Use Rights.In many cases, owner may be willing to limit future uses of the land.
28 Mechanisms for Implementing Land-Use Plans Regulate UseZoning - Designating land for specific uses.Often planners represent business or developing interests.
29 Special Urban Planning Issues Urban Transportation PlanningFour GoalsConserve energy and land resources.Provide efficient / inexpensive transportation.Target populations.Provide efficient transportation opportunities to suburban residents.Reduce urban pollution.
30 Urban Transportation Planning Problems with Mass TransitOnly economical along heavily populated routes.Extremely expensive to build / operate.Often crowded and uncomfortable.U.S. government encourages personal autos by financing highways, maintaining cheap energy policy, and not funding mass-transit projects (hidden subsidies).
31 Problems with Mass Transit Mass transportation systems are often under-funded and difficult to establish because mass transit is:Economically feasible only along heavily populated areas.Less convenient than private automobiles.Extremely expensive to build and operate.Often crowded and uncomfortable.
33 Urban Recreation Planning Nearly 3/4 of N.A. population lives in urban areas.Until recently, urban parks were considered an uneconomical use of land.Facilities not conveniently located may be infrequently used.New outgrowth of urbanization is the development of urban nature centers.
34 Re-Development of Inner City Areas Many industrial cities are plagued by high cost of cleanup and renovation of brownfields.Vacant industrial and commercial sites.Brownfield Development - Degree of clean-up required to support intended use of the site.Another important focus is remodeling abandoned commercial buildings into shopping centers, cultural facilities, and high-density housing.
35 Smart Growth Smart Growth recognizes benefits of growth. Advocates emphasize developing “livable” cities and town.Quality of environment directly affects quality of life.
36 Smart Growth Smart Growth Principles Mix land uses. Take advantage of compact designs.Create range of housing opportunities.Create walkable neighborhoods.Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place.
37 Smart Growth Principles Preserve open space and critical environmental areas.Strengthen development of existing areas.Provide variety of transportation choices.Make fair, cost-effective decisions.Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions.
38 Federal Government Land-Use Issues Multiple Use Sustained Yield ActDivided use of national forests into (4) categories:Wildlife Habitat PreservationRecreationLumberingWatershed Protection
39 Federal Government Land-Use Issues 1872 Mining Law“Miners” allowed to purchase mineral extraction rights to public land for $5.00 per acre and keep rights as long as minimal maintenance continued.Encouraged mining and mineral supplies.
40 Federal Government Land-Use Issues Outdoor RecreationMany people want to use the natural world for recreational purposes as nature can provide challenges lacking in day-to-day life.Conflicts develop because some activities cannot occur in the same place at the same time.Groups argue that because they pay taxes, they “own” the land and have a right to use it.
42 Outdoor Recreation Agency Control Several U.S. agencies allocate and regulate the lands they control.Conflicting RolesForest ServiceLogging vs. RecreationBureau of Land ManagementGrazing vs. Recreation
43 Review Need for Planning Historical Forces Rural to Urban Shift Urban SprawlContributing FactorsProblems with Unplanned GrowthLand-Use Planning PrinciplesUrban Planning IssuesSmart GrowthFederal Government Land Use Issues
44 Be sure to read about wetlands loss in Louisiana (291) & aesthetic pollution (296)