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1 1 Land-Use Planning 2 Outline Need for Planning Historical Forces Rural to Urban Shift Urban Sprawl –Contributing Factors –Problems with Unplanned.

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Presentation on theme: "1 1 Land-Use Planning 2 Outline Need for Planning Historical Forces Rural to Urban Shift Urban Sprawl –Contributing Factors –Problems with Unplanned."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 1 1 Land-Use Planning

3 2 Outline Need for Planning Historical Forces Rural to Urban Shift Urban Sprawl –Contributing Factors –Problems with Unplanned Growth Land-Use Planning Principles –Urban Planning Issues –Smart Growth Federal Government Land Use Issues

4 3 The Need For Planning Between 1/3 - 1/2 world’s surface altered by humans. –Most land-use decisions are still based primarily on economic considerations or short- term needs rather than on unique analysis of the landscape. –Once land has been converted to intensive human use, it is generally unavailable for other uses.

5 4 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use in North America Land Use in the United States: –47% - Crops and livestock –45% - Forests and natural areas –5% - Intensive human use Differs greatly from original conditions experienced by immigrants from New World.

6 5 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use in North America First U.S. colonists converted landscape to farming, and then to towns and cities. Waterways provided primary method of transportation. –Allowed exploration and development of commerce. –Early towns usually built near water and at transfer points between water systems.

7 6 Water and Urban Centers

8 7 Rural to Urban Shift North America remained essentially rural until industrial growth began in last 1/3 of 1800’s. Industrial Revolution –Industrial jobs to be found in cities. European Immigrants –Congregated in, and subdivided cities. Offered variety of cultural, social, and artistic opportunities.

9 8 Migration from Central City to the Suburbs Industrial Revolution led to polluted, undesirable waterways. –As roads and rail transport became more common, many left the waterway areas. Agricultural land surrounding towns was converted to housing. –Land began to be viewed as a commodity, not as a non- renewable resource to be managed.

10 9 Suburb Migration As land prices in the city rose, people began to look for cheaper areas away from the city. – % urban population lived in central cities. – % urban population lived in central cities.

11 10 Rural-to-Urban Population Shift

12 11 Suburb Migration Convenience and personal automobiles escalated decentralized housing patterns and diminished importance of mass transit. –Decreased energy efficiency. –Increased cost of supplying utility services.

13 12 Suburb Migration Urban Sprawl - Pattern of un-planned low density housing and commercial development outside of cities. –Land-Use Practices: Zoning ordinances that isolate employment and shopping services away from housing locations. Low-density planning aimed at creating automobile access to increasing expanses of land.

14 13 Suburb Migration Three types of urban sprawl: –Development of exclusive wealthy suburbs adjacent to the city. –Tract Development - Construction of similar residential units over large areas. –Ribbon Sprawl - Commercial / industrial buildings line highways connecting housing developments to central city. Megalopolis - Merge of cities into large, urban areas.

15 14 Regional Cities

16 15 Factors That Contribute to Sprawl Lifestyle –Increased wealth of population. Decentralized housing pattern is possible because high rate of automobile ownership allows ease of movement. Economic –Building on agricultural land less expensive. –Tax laws encourage home development.

17 16 Factors That Contribute to Sprawl Planning and Policy –Historically, little coordination of effort. Large number of political jurisdictions. –Zoning ordinances prohibit land use mixing. Specify minimum lot and house sizes. –Government subsidies. Local governments pay some costs of extending services into new areas. –Alleviates costs to builders.

18 17 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Transportation –Little thought to transportation corridors. –Establishment of new corridors stimulates growth in nearby areas. Reliance on automobiles has required constant road building. –In Los Angeles, 70% of city’s surface area dedicated to automobiles. Average person in U.S. spends 9 hrs/wk in an automobile.

19 18 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Air Pollution –As traffic increases, so does air pollution. Low Energy Efficiency –Automobiles are inefficient transportation. –Decentralized cities - longer commutes. –Stop and go traffic patterns. –Single family homes less efficient.

20 19 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Loss of Sense of Community –In many areas, people do not routinely walk through their neighborhood. Death of Central City –Currently less than 10% of people work in the central city. Less income to support public services. Higher Infrastructure Costs –Extension of municipal services.

21 20 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Loss of Open Space –Oftentimes open space planning left out of development plans. Loss of Farmland –Flat, well-drained land ideal for both farmland and urban development. –Partial transformation often leads to whole transformation.

22 21 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Water Pollution Problems –Large impervious surface areas lead to high runoff and potential flooding. Floodplain Problems –Many cities located on floodplains. Flat, nutrient rich. –Development increases economic losses. Many communities have enacted floodplain zoning ordinances.

23 22 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Wetlands Misuse –Many have been drained, filled, or used as landfills. U.S. has lost 53% of wetlands since the European immigration began (Not including Alaska). –Wetlands play crucial role in reproductive phase of many organisms. »Provide sediment filtration.

24 23 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Other Land-Use Considerations –Geological Status Earthquake-Prone Faults Unstable Hillsides Fire-Prone Areas –Climate Water Shortages

25 24 Land-Use Planning Principles Land-Use Planning - Evaluating needs and wants of a population, as well as land characteristics and value, and various alternative solutions to land uses before changes are made. –Basic rule should be to make as few changes as possible.

26 25 Land-Use Planning Principles Evaluate and record unique geological, geographic, and biologic features. Preserve unique cultural or historical features. Conserve open space and environmental features. Calculate cost of additional changes required to accommodate altered land use.

27 26 Land-Use Planning Principles Plan for mixed uses in close proximity. Plan variety of transportation options. Set limits and require managed growth patterns with compact development. Encourage development in areas with existing infrastructure.

28 27 Mechanisms for Implementing Land-Use Plans Establish State / Regional Planning Agencies. –More effective than larger agencies due to more logical natural boundaries. Purchase Land or Use Rights. –In many cases, owner may be willing to limit future uses of the land.

29 28 Mechanisms for Implementing Land-Use Plans Regulate Use –Zoning - Designating land for specific uses. Often planners represent business or developing interests.

30 29 Special Urban Planning Issues Urban Transportation Planning –Four Goals Conserve energy and land resources. Provide efficient / inexpensive transportation. –Target populations. Provide efficient transportation opportunities to suburban residents. Reduce urban pollution.

31 30 Urban Transportation Planning Problems with Mass Transit –Only economical along heavily populated routes. –Extremely expensive to build / operate. –Often crowded and uncomfortable. –U.S. government encourages personal autos by financing highways, maintaining cheap energy policy, and not funding mass-transit projects (hidden subsidies).

32 31 Problems with Mass Transit Mass transportation systems are often under-funded and difficult to establish because mass transit is: –Economically feasible only along heavily populated areas. –Less convenient than private automobiles. –Extremely expensive to build and operate. –Often crowded and uncomfortable.

33 32 Decline of Mass Transportation

34 33 Urban Recreation Planning Nearly 3/4 of N.A. population lives in urban areas. Until recently, urban parks were considered an uneconomical use of land. Facilities not conveniently located may be infrequently used. –New outgrowth of urbanization is the development of urban nature centers.

35 34 Re-Development of Inner City Areas Many industrial cities are plagued by high cost of cleanup and renovation of brownfields. –Vacant industrial and commercial sites. Brownfield Development - Degree of clean-up required to support intended use of the site. Another important focus is remodeling abandoned commercial buildings into shopping centers, cultural facilities, and high-density housing.

36 35 Smart Growth Smart Growth recognizes benefits of growth. –Advocates emphasize developing “livable” cities and town. Quality of environment directly affects quality of life.

37 36 Smart Growth Smart Growth Principles –Mix land uses. –Take advantage of compact designs. –Create range of housing opportunities. –Create walkable neighborhoods. –Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place.

38 37 Smart Growth Principles –Preserve open space and critical environmental areas. –Strengthen development of existing areas. –Provide variety of transportation choices. –Make fair, cost-effective decisions. –Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions.

39 38 Federal Government Land-Use Issues Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act – Divided use of national forests into (4) categories: Wildlife Habitat Preservation Recreation Lumbering Watershed Protection

40 39 Federal Government Land-Use Issues 1872 Mining Law –“Miners” allowed to purchase mineral extraction rights to public land for $5.00 per acre and keep rights as long as minimal maintenance continued. Encouraged mining and mineral supplies.

41 40 Federal Government Land-Use Issues Outdoor Recreation –Many people want to use the natural world for recreational purposes as nature can provide challenges lacking in day-to-day life. Conflicts develop because some activities cannot occur in the same place at the same time. –Groups argue that because they pay taxes, they “own” the land and have a right to use it.

42 41 U.S. Federal Recreational Lands

43 42 Outdoor Recreation Agency Control –Several U.S. agencies allocate and regulate the lands they control. Conflicting Roles –Forest Service » Logging vs. Recreation –Bureau of Land Management » Grazing vs. Recreation

44 43 Review Need for Planning Historical Forces Rural to Urban Shift Urban Sprawl –Contributing Factors –Problems with Unplanned Growth Land-Use Planning Principles –Urban Planning Issues –Smart Growth Federal Government Land Use Issues

45 44 Be sure to read about wetlands loss in Louisiana (291) & aesthetic pollution (296)


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