Presentation on theme: "Federal Regulations National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)- mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or permits."— Presentation transcript:
Federal Regulations National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)- mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or permits. Environmental impact statement (EIS)- outlines the scope and purpose of the project. Environmental mitigation plan- outlines how the developer will address concerns raised by the projects impact on the environment.
Residential Land Suburban- areas surrounding metropolitan centers with low population densities. Exurban- similar to suburban areas, but are not connected to any central city or densely populated area.
An Urbanized World—many urbanized settings are nearly continuous
Case Study: Urbanization in the U.S. About 48% of Americans live in consolidated metropolitan areas (bottom map). 8 of 10 Americans live in Urban areas. Figure 23-4
Urban Sprawl Urban sprawl- the creation of urbanized areas that spread into rural areas. The four main concerns of urban sprawl in the U.S. are: automobiles and highway construction living costs (people can get more land and a larger house in the suburbs for the same amount of money) urban blight (city revenue shrinks as people move to the suburbs) government policies
Urban Sprawl As they grow and sprawl outward, urban areas merge to form megalopolis. – Bowash runs from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. Figure 23-7
URBANIZATION AND URBAN GROWTH People move to cities because “push” factors force them out of rural areas and “pull” factors give them the hope of finding jobs and a better life in the city. Urban populations are growing rapidly and many cities in developing countries have become centers of poverty.
Major Urban Areas of the World Satellite images of the earth at night showing city lights. Currently, 49% of the world’s population live in urban areas (2% of earth’s land area). Figure 23-2
URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Urban areas can offer more job opportunities and better education and health, and can help protect biodiversity by concentrating people.
URBAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Cities are rarely self-sustaining, can threaten biodiversity, lack trees, concentrate pollutants and noise, spread infectious diseases, and are centers of poverty crime, and terrorism. Figure 23-3
Cluster Development High density housing units are concentrated on one portion of a parcel with the rest of the land used for commonly shared open space. Figure 23-17
Cities as Systems Urban settings can be analyzed as systems. They are unlike any natural system in their density of population and scale of cycling & consumption. Modern mega- cities pose unique problems for environment.
City placement & the Fall Line The fall line marks the area where the upland region of the Piedmont meets the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The fall line is typically prominent where a river crosses it, for there will usually be rapids or waterfalls.
Government Policies Highway Trust Fund- a federal gasoline tax to pay for construction and maintenance of roads and highways. Zoning- a planning tool to create quieter and safer communities. For example, prohibiting the development of a factory or strip mall in a residential area. Multi-use zoning- allows retail and high-density residential development to coexist in the same area. Subsidized mortgages- low interest rates offered to people to purchase a home that would otherwise not be able to do so.
Smart Growth Mixed land uses create a range of housing opportunities and choices create walkable neighborhoods encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions take advantage of compact building design Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty and critical environmental areas Provide a variety of transportation choices Strengthen and direct development toward existing communities Make development decisions predictable, fair and cost- effective http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/category /new-york/
The Ecocity Concept Principles of sustainability: – Build cities for people not cars. – Use renewable energy resources. – Use solar-power living machines and wetlands for waste water treatment. – Depend largely on recycled water. – Use energy and matter efficiently. – Prevent pollution and reduce waste. – Reuse and recycle at least 60% of municipal solid waste.
The Ecocity Concept – Protect biodiversity by preserving, protecting, and restoring surrounding natural areas. – Promote urban gardens and farmers markets. – Build communities that promote cultural and economic diversity. – Use zoning and other tools to keep the human population and environmentally sustainable levels.