2 The Need for PlanningBetween one-third and one-half of the world’s surface has been altered by humans.Most land-use decisions are still based primarily on economic considerations or short-term needs rather than on unique analysis of the landscape.Once land has been converted to intensive human use, it is generally unavailable for other uses.
3 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use Present land use in the United States:47% - Crops and livestock45% - Forests and natural areas5% - Intensive human useThis pattern of land use differs greatly from original conditions experienced by immigrants from New World.
4 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use The first U.S. colonists converted landscape to farming, and then to towns and cities.Waterways provided the primary method of transportation.This allowed exploration and development of commerce.Early towns were usually built near water and at transfer points between water systems.
5 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use Water and urban centers
6 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use North America remained essentially rural until industrial growth began in last third of the 1800s.Cities grew because of:Industrial RevolutionPeople migrated from farms to industrial jobs found in cities.European immigrantsCongregated in cities where jobs were available.Cultural, social, and artistic opportunities
7 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs In the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, a lack of control over industry activities led to polluted, undesirable waterways.As roads and rail transport became more common, many left the waterway areas.Agricultural land surrounding towns was converted to housing.Land began to be viewed as a commodity, not as a non-renewable resource to be managed.
8 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs As cities grew, certain sections within each city began to deteriorate.Pollution and crowding made cities undesirable places to live.In the early 1900s, people who could afford to move out of cities began to do so.% urban population lived in central cities.% urban population lived in central cities.
9 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Rural-to-urban population shift
10 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Rural-to-urban population shift
11 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs The convenience of a personal automobile escalated decentralized housing patterns and diminished importance of mass transit.This led to decreased energy efficiency.It increased the cost of supplying utility services.
12 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Urban sprawl is a pattern of unplanned, low-density housing and commercial development outside of cities.Land-use practices are fundamental to sustainability. Two practices that have contributed to urban sprawl are:Zoning ordinances that isolate employment and shopping services away from housing locations.Low-density planning aimed at creating automobile access to increasing expanses of land.
13 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Sprawl is typically characterized by:Excessive land consumption.Low densities in comparison with older centers.Lack of choice in ways to travel.Fragmented open space, wide gaps in development, and a scattered appearance.Lack of choice in housing types and prices.
14 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Separation of uses into distinct areas.Repetitive one-story development.Commercial buildings surrounded by large parking areas.Lack of public spaces and community centers.
15 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Urban sprawl occurs in three ways:Development of exclusive, wealthy suburbs adjacent to the city.Tract development is the construction of similar residential units over large areas.Ribbon sprawl consists of commercial / industrial buildings lining highways connecting housing developments to the central city.A megalopolis is a merging of cities into large, urban areas.
16 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Types of urban sprawl
17 Migration from the Central City to the Suburbs Regional cities
18 Factors That Contribute to Sprawl LifestyleIncreased wealth of population is reflected in material possessions, particularly the automobile and homes.A decentralized housing pattern is possible because high rate of automobile ownership allows ease of movement.EconomicBuilding on agricultural land is less expensive than to build within established cities.Tax laws encourage home ownership.
19 Factors That Contribute to Sprawl Planning and PolicyHistorically, there was little coordination of effort as to how cities should develop.Large cities have a huge number of political jurisdictions, so coordination is difficult.Zoning ordinances prohibit land-use mixing.Ordinances specify minimum lot and house sizes.Government subsidizes the development of decentralized cities.Local governments pay some costs of extending services into new areas; costs are not passed on to builders.
20 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth TransportationAs cities grew, little thought was given to transportation corridors.Establishment of new corridors stimulates growth in nearby areas, and the new corridors soon become inadequate.Reliance on automobiles has required constant road building.In Los Angeles, 70% of city’s surface area dedicated to automobiles.The average person in the U.S. spends 9 hrs/week in an automobile.
21 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Air PollutionAs traffic increases, so does air pollution.A centralized, efficient public transportation system solves this problem, but it is difficult to achieve with a highly dispersed population.Low Energy EfficiencyAutomobiles are inefficient transportation.Separation of homes and businesses requires additional driving.Stop-and-go traffic patterns.Single-family homes are less efficient than multifamily dwellings.
22 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Loss of Sense of CommunityIn many areas, people do not routinely walk through their neighborhood, leaving them feeling isolated.Death of the Central CityCurrently less than 10% of people work in the central city.There is less income to support public services.Higher Infrastructure CostsExtension of municipal services is more costly than supplying services to areas already in the city.
23 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Loss of Open SpaceOftentimes open space planning is left out of development plans.Loss of FarmlandFlat, well-drained land is ideal for both farmland and urban development.Several states have established programs that provide protection to farmers who do not want to sell their land to developers.These programs may require farmers to put their land in a conservation easement.
24 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Water Pollution ProblemsLarge impervious surface areas lead to high runoff and potential flooding.Floodplain ProblemsMany cities are located on floodplains because they were originally established along waterways.The flat land is attractive to developers but would be better put to use as open space or recreation.Development increases economic losses.Many communities have enacted floodplain zoning ordinances.
25 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Flooding in floodplain in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina
26 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Wetlands MisuseWetlands are areas that periodically are covered with water.Many have been drained, filled, or used as landfills.U.S. has lost 53% of wetlands since the European immigration began (not including Alaska).Wetlands play crucial role in reproductive phase of many organisms.They also provide sediment filtration.
27 Problems Associated with Unplanned Growth Other Land-Use ConsiderationsGeological status must be considered in land-use decisions.Building on earthquake-prone faults has led to the loss of life and property.Building on unstable hillsides and fire-prone areas is also unwise.ClimateBuilding in chronically dry areas leads to water shortages.
28 Land-Use Planning Principles Land-use planning is a process of evaluating the needs and wants of a population, the land characteristics and value, and various alternative solutions to land uses before changes are made.A basic rule should be to make as few changes as possible.
29 Land-Use Planning Principles When changes are needed:Evaluate and record unique geological, geographic, and biologic features.Preserve unique cultural or historical features.Conserve open space and environmental features.Recognize and calculate the cost of additional changes required to accommodate altered land use.
30 Land-Use Planning Principles Plan for mixed uses in close proximity.Plan for a variety of transportation options.Set limits and require managed growth patterns with compact development.Encourage development in areas with existing infrastructure.
31 Mechanisms for Implementing Land-Use Plans Establish State / Regional Planning AgenciesThis pattern is more effective than local agencies because political boundaries seldom reflect the geological and biological database used in planning.A regional approach is more likely to prevent duplication of facilities and lead to greater efficiency.Purchase Land or Use RightsIn many cases, owner may not be willing to sell the land but is willing to limit future uses of the land.
32 Mechanisms for Implementing Land-Use Plans Regulate UseZoning is a land-use regulation that restricts the uses to which land in a region can be put.Often, planners making zoning decisions represent business or developing interests.
33 Mechanisms for Implementing Land-Use Plans Zoning
34 Special Urban Planning Issues Urban Transportation PlanningUrban transportation planning usually involves four goals:Conserve energy and land resources.Provide efficient and inexpensive transportation, particularly to those who are unable to drive.Provide efficient transportation opportunities to suburban residents.Reduce urban pollution.
35 Special Urban Planning Issues Mass transit in the U.S. is often underfunded and difficult to establish because:It is only economical along heavily populated routes.It is less convenient than the automobile.It is extremely expensive to build / operate.It is often crowded and uncomfortable.The U.S. government encourages personal autos by financing highways, maintaining cheap energy policy, and not funding mass-transit projects (hidden subsidies).
36 Special Urban Planning Issues Decline of mass transportation
37 Special Urban Planning Issues Nearly three-fourths of the North American population lives in urban areas.Until recently, urban parks were considered an uneconomical use of land.Facilities not conveniently located near residential areas may be infrequently used.A new outgrowth of urbanization is the development of urban nature centers.
38 Special Urban Planning Issues Special efforts must be made to revitalize the inner city.Abandoned industrial and commercial sites remain vacant because they are expensive to clean up and renovate.Brownfield development matches the degree of cleanup required to the intended use of the site.Another important focus is remodeling abandoned commercial buildings into shopping centers, cultural facilities, and high-density housing.
39 Special Urban Planning Issues Smart growth recognizes benefits of growth.Advocates emphasize developing “livable” cities and towns.Smart growth recognizes that quality of environment directly affects quality of life.
40 Special Urban Planning Issues One aspect of smart growth is the building of “green buildings.”Green buildings are built using a standard called Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED).The guidelines call for using recycled materials, ensuring better ventilation in buildings, reducing water and energy use, and other goals.
41 Special Urban Planning Issues Characteristics of high-performance green building are:Low-water-flow fixtures are installed on faucets.Buildings’ energy use is tested by an outside expert.Products used do not contribute to ozone layer depletion.Occupants have outside views, including natural day lighting of work surfaces.
42 Special Urban Planning Issues Smart Growth Principles:Mix land uses.Take advantage of compact building designs.Create range of housing opportunities and choices.Create walk-able neighborhoods.Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place.
43 Special Urban Planning Issues Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas.Strengthen and direct development of existing areas.Provide a variety of transportation choices.Make fair, predictable, cost-effective development decisions.Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions.
44 Federal Government Land-Use Issues The Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act of 1960 divided use of national forests into four categories:Wildlife habitat preservationRecreationLumberingWatershed protection
45 Federal Government Land-Use Issues An 1872 mining law allows anyone to prospect for minerals on public land and establish a claim if such minerals are discovered.The miner is then allowed to purchase the rights to extract the mineral for $5 per acre.Many feel that the law is obsolete, but the law is still in force and public land is still being sold to mining interests at ridiculously low prices.
46 Federal Government Land-Use Issues Many people want to use the natural world for recreational purposes because nature can provide challenges lacking in day-to-day life.Conflicts develop because some activities cannot occur in the same place at the same time.Groups argue that because they pay taxes, they have a right to use it as they wish.
47 Federal Government Land-Use Issues Conflict over recreational use of land
48 Federal Government Land-Use Issues U.S. federal recreational lands
49 Federal Government Land-Use Issues Several U.S. agencies, including the National Park Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the Forest Service, and the Fish and Wildlife Service, allocate and regulate the lands they control.These agencies have conflicting roles.Designation of certain lands as wilderness is a sensitive issue.
50 SummaryWaterways served as transportation corridors that allowed for the exploration of new land and for the transport of goods.Urban centers began as small towns located near water.Several factors resulted in the shift of the population from rural to urban.Unregulated industrial development in cities led to degradation of waterfronts and stimulated the development of suburbs.Many problems have resulted from unplanned growth.
51 SummaryLand-use planning involves gathering data, projecting needs, and developing mechanisms for implementing the plan.Establishing regional planning agencies, purchasing land or its development rights, and enacting zoning ordinances are ways to implement land-use planning.
52 SummaryFederal governments own and manage large amounts of land, so national policy must be developed.Often federal policy is a compromise between competing uses and land is managed for multiple uses.