Presentation on theme: "Announcements – Nov. 27, 2006 Exam III results are in. We will hand out error sheets on Wednesday. Student evaluation forms (ICES) Wednesday. Extra Credit."— Presentation transcript:
Announcements – Nov. 27, 2006 Exam III results are in. We will hand out error sheets on Wednesday. Student evaluation forms (ICES) Wednesday. Extra Credit on Wednesday
CNN - Report links urban sprawl to health problems. September 27, 2004 People who live in areas with a high degree of sprawl are more likely to report chronic health problems such as high blood pressure, arthritis, headaches and breathing difficulties compared to residents in less sprawled-out areas. "People drive more in these areas, they walk less." A sprawling area is defined in the study as a place that has streets not well connected, lower population density and areas that are far from each other, such as schools and shopping malls.
Land-Use Planning Lecture Objectives: 1) Trace the history of land use in North America 2) Understand the problems of unplanned growth 3) Learn mechanisms for land-use planning
Why are cities and suburbs located where they are? Why is there so much traffic congestion and poorly designed highways?
The Need For Planning 1/3—1/2 world’s land surface altered by humans. – Most change done with minimal forethought to consequences.
The Need For Planning Most land-use decisions based on economic considerations or short-term needs rather than on unique analysis of the landscape. – Natural ecosystems should be considered a non-renewable resource.
First U.S. colonists converted landscape to farming, and then to towns and cities. A good place for a city was: On or near a waterway Transportation Water Waste disposal Surrounded by farmland Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use In North America
Water and Urban Centers
Rural-To-Urban Shift Industrial Revolution triggered switch from rural to urban living – Industrial jobs to be found in cities. European Immigrants – Congregated in, and subdivided cities. Offered variety of cultural, social, and artistic opportunities.
Migration from Central City To The Suburbs Industrial Revolution led to polluted waterways and crowding & congestion in central city roads and rail transport became more common
Migration from Central City To The Suburbs Undesirable city conditions & expensive city land caused people & development to move to outskirts – 1950—60% urban population lived in central cities. – 1990—30% urban population lived in central cities.
Migration from Central City To The Suburbs Agricultural land surrounding towns was converted to housing. – Cheap, easy to build on & little restrictions Land began to be viewed as a commodity, not a non-renewable resource to be managed. Most single family houses after WWII were built away from city congestion.
Suburb Migration Convenience and personal automobiles escalated decentralized housing patterns and diminished importance of mass transit. – Decreased energy efficiency – Increased cost of supplying utility services
Urban Sprawl Urban Sprawl — Pattern of unplanned low density housing and commercial development outside of cities usually on undeveloped land. 1) Wealthy suburbs 2) Tract development 3) Ribbon sprawl
Factors That Contribute to Sprawl Lifestyle – Increased wealth of population. Houses and cars Economic – Building on agricultural land less expensive. – Tax laws encourage home development. Planning and Policy – Historically, little coordination of effort. – Zoning ordinances prohibit land use mixing
Problems Associated With Unplanned Growth Transportation and traffic – Little thought to transportation corridors. Average person in U.S. spends 9 hrs/wk in an automobile. 70% of surface in Los Angeles is either roads, parking garages or lots
Local issues with transportation MTD suspends trolley proposal MTD considers annexing Savoy: bus service, higher property taxes & no public vote Funding for area road projects
Problems Associated With Unplanned Growth Air Pollution As traffic increases, so does air pollution. Energy Efficiencies Automobiles are inefficient transportation. Decentralized cities—longer commutes. Single family homes less efficient.
Problems Associated With Unplanned Growth Loss of Farmland Loss of Open Space Death of Central City Land converted to urban uses at rate of over 1 million acres/year
Problems Associated With Unplanned Growth Water Pollution Typical mall has parking lot that is 4x larger than the space taken up by the building Floodplain Problems – Many cities located on floodplains.
Problems Associated With Unplanned Growth Other – Building on fault lines. – Building in dry areas.
Land-Use Planning Principles Land-Use Planning — Evaluating: – needs and wants of a population – land characteristics and value – various solutions to land uses before changes are made
Land-Use Planning Principles Evaluate and record unique features. Preserve unique cultural or historical features. Conserve open space Plan for mixed uses in close proximity. Plan variety of transportation options. Set limits and managed growth patterns. Encourage development in areas of existing infrastructure.
Mechanisms For Implementing Land-Use Plans Establish state or regional planning agencies. – Local govt’s have narrow view and don’t want to give up power Purchase land or use rights. Regulate Use – Zoning — Designating land for specific uses.
Special Urban Planning Issues Urban Transportation Planning Conserve energy and land resources. Provide efficient / inexpensive transportation both within city and to suburbs. Reduce urban pollution. Redevelopment of Inner City Areas Urban Recreation Planning Until recently, most urban parks were considered uneconomical use of the land
Smart Growth Smart Growth – growth without sprawl Smart Growth Principles – Mix land uses – Take advantage of compact designs – Create walkable neighborhoods – Foster distinctive, attractive neighborhoods – Preserve open space and critical areas – Strengthen development of existing areas – Provide variety of transportation choices.
Federal Government Land-Use Issues Recreation - Conflicts develop because some activities cannot occur in the same place at the same time Both groups argue they pay taxes, thus “own” the land and have a right to use it. Snowmobiles in Yellowstone
Points to Know 1) Historically, where was a good place to build a city? What are two factors that prompted the rural to urban population shift? 2) What land and personal factors lead to abandoning the central city for the suburbs? 3) What is urban sprawl and what are 3 reasons for it? 4) Be able to recognize the 9 problems with unplanned growth. 5) Why is land-use planning often difficult to implement? 6) What is smart growth? How can it be achieved?