Presentation on theme: "The Northern Renaissance"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Northern Renaissance PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusThe Renaissance Spreads NorthPhilosophers and WritersArtists
2 The Northern Renaissance Main IdeaRenaissance ideas soon spread beyond Italy to northern Europe by means of trade, travel, and printed material, influencing the art and ideas of the north.Reading FocusHow did the Renaissance spread to northern Europe?What contributions did writers and philosophers make to the northern Renaissance?How did the works of northern artists differ from those of the Italian Renaissance?
3 The Renaissance Spreads North Trade, the movement of artists and scholars, and the development of printing helped spread Renaissance ideas north from Italy.As cities grew, vast trading network spread across northern EuropeNetwork dominated by Hanseatic League, merchant organization, 1200s to 1400sProtected members from pirates, other hazardsBuilt lighthouses, trained ship captainsTrading GoodsNorthern Europeans traded ideas, goods; spread Italian Renaissance northFleeing violence, Italian artists brought humanist ideas, painting techniques northNorthern scholars traveled to Italy, brought ideas homeUniversities started in France, Netherlands, GermanyTrading Ideas
4 A Book Revolution Printing Press Printed Word Available to More Mid-1400s, Johannes Gutenberg cast letters of alphabet on metal plates, locked metal plates on wooden press; perfected movable type printingResult, one of most dramatic upheavals world has ever knownPrinted Word Available to MoreBefore only way to reproduce writing was by hand; long, painstaking processWith movable type, text quickly printed; producing books faster, cheaperEasier access to books prompted more people to learn to readItalicsGutenberg’s first publication, 1,282-page BiblePrinters soon appeared in other cities, made books quickly, inexpensivelyExplosion of printed material quickly spread Renaissance ideas
5 How did Renaissance ideas spread to northern Europe? Find the Main IdeaHow did Renaissance ideas spread to northern Europe?Answer(s): Ideas were exchanged through trade; artists and scholars traveled between Italy and the north; printing press allowed easier bookmaking; ideas spread with printed material.
6 Philosophers and Writers Northern humanists expressed their own ideasCombined interests of theology, fiction and historyCreated philosophical works, novels, dramas, and poemsCombined Christian ideas, humanismWrote of pure, simple Christian life, educating childrenFanned flames of discontentRoman Catholic Church censored, condemned worksDesiderius ErasmusMore’s best-known work, Utopia, contains criticisms of English government, societyPresents vision of perfect, non-existent society based on reasonSir Thomas MoreItalian-born writer focused on role of women in societyGrew up in French court of Charles V; turned to writing when widowedChampioned equality, education for womenChristine de Pisan
7 Shakespeare and His Characters Many believe English playwright William Shakespeare greatest writerPlots not original, but treatments of them masterfulDrew inspiration from ancient, contemporary literatureKnowledge of natural science, humanist topics expressed in playsWilliam ShakespeareUse of language, choice of themes made plays appealing even to uneducatedPlays helped spread ideas of Renaissance to mass audienceFocused on lives of realistic characters, unlike morality playsBy Shakespeare’s death, 1616, London scene of thriving theatre districtSpread Renaissance Ideas
8 What are some characteristics of Renaissance writers’ work? SummarizeWhat are some characteristics of Renaissance writers’ work?Answer(s): expressed humanist ideas, scientific knowledge, realistic experiences, and social conditions
9 ArtistsLike literary counterparts, northern European artists influenced by Italian RenaissanceAdopted Italian techniquesWorks reflected more realistic view of humanityItalian artists tried to capture beauty of Greek, Roman gods in paintingsNorthern artists tried to depict people as they really were
10 Dürer and Others Flemish School Everyday Life 1400s, German artist Albrecht Dürer visited ItalyOn return, used Italian techniques of realism, perspectiveOil paintings exhibit features unique to northern RenaissanceOils reproduced textures; reflection of objects, scenes outside windowArtists of Netherlands developed own style, Flemish SchoolUsed technique perfected by Jan van Eyck, 1400sFused the everyday with religious; lit candle represents God’s presenceFlemish School1500s, Pieter Brueghel the Elder used Italian techniquesPaintings showed scenes from everyday peasant lifeDifferent from mythological scenes of Italian paintingsEveryday Life
11 ContrastHow did northern Renaissance artwork differ from that of Italian artists?Answer(s): depicted everyday objects, people as they actually were