2 Overview of the Principles of Learning & Teaching Exam Designed to assess a beginning teacher’s knowledge of a variety of job- related criteria
3 Principles of Learning & Teaching at a Glance 2 hour test 12 short-answer questions and 24 multiple-choice questions Format: 4 case studies, each with 3 constructed-response questions and 24 multiple choice questions
4 Principles of Learning & Teaching at a Glance Includes 4 case studies, each presenting a particular teaching situation For each case study, you will respond to 3 short-answer questions 12 short-answer questions will cover all of the content areas Each short-answer question will be scored on a scale of 0-2 Each case study with short-answer answers will require ~25 minutes –budget your time!
5 Principles of Learning & Teaching at a Glance Plan on ~25 minutes per case study Allow ~10 minutes to answer each of the two sections of multiple-choice questions Multiple-choice questions are not associated with the case studies
6 Content Categories Students as Learners (~35%) Instruction and Assessment (~35%) Communication Techniques (~15%) Teacher Professionalism (~15%)
7 Content Categories Students as Learners (~35%) Student development & the learning process Students as diverse learners Student motivation and the learning environment
9 Content Categories Communication Techniques (~15%) Effective verbal and nonverbal communication Cultural and gender differences in communication Stimulating discussion and responses in the classroom
10 Content Categories Teacher Professionalism (~15%) The reflective practitioner The larger community
11 Student as Learners Student Development and the Learning Process Knowing each theorist’s major ideas and being able to compare and contrast one theory with another How can these theories be applied to teaching practice
12 Student as Learners Student Development and the Learning Process – Important theorists Albert Bandura Jerome Bruner John Dewey Jean Piaget Lev Vygotsky Howard Gardner Abraham Maslow B.F. Skinner
13 Student as Learners Albert Bandura Social learning theory: Theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others Social cognitive theory: Theory that adds concerns with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectation to social learning theory
14 Student as Learners Albert Bandura Social cognitive theory distinguishes between enactive and vicarious learning Enactive learning is learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions (self-regulation of behavior, goal directed behavior, self-monitoring) Vicarious learning is learning by observing others
15 Student as Learners Albert Bandura Four elements of observational learning Attention Retention Production Motivation and reinforcement
16 Student as Learners Jerome Bruner Promoted the concept of discovery learning by encouraging teachers to give students more opportunity to learn on their own. Discovery learning encourages students to think for themselves and discover how knowledge is constructed Discovery learning is learning in which students construct an understanding on their own Related to Piaget and Dewey’s views
17 Student as Learners John Dewey Viewed problem solving according to the scientific method as the proper way to think and the most effective teaching method Schools should teach learners how to solve problems and inquire/interact with their natural and social environments Every learner attempts to explore and understand his/her environment
18 Student as Learners Jean Piaget Organization – ongoing process of arranging information and experience into mental systems or categories Schemes – mental systems of categories and experiences Adaptation – adjustment to the environment
19 Student as Learners Jean Piaget Adaptation – adjustment to the environment Assimilation – fitting new information into existing schemes Accommodation – altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information Equilibration – search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from the environment
20 Student as Learners Jean Piaget Operations – actions a person carries out by thinking them through instead of literally performing the actions Four stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor – 0-2 yrs – involves the senses and motor activity Preoperational – 2-7 yrs – stage before a child masters logical mental operations Concrete operational – 7-11 yrs – mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations Formal operational – 11-adult – mental tasks involving abstract thinking and coordination of a number of variables
21 Student as Learners Jean Piaget Goal of education should be to help children learn how to learn Importance of developmentally appropriate education Individuals construct their own understandings Value of play
22 Student as Learners Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural theory – emphasizes role in development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society Children learn the culture of their community (ways of thinking & behaving) through interactions
23 Student as Learners Lev Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development – phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support Scaffolding – support for learning and problem solving. The support could be anything that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner Private talk
24 Student as Learners How might a teacher apply some of Leve Vygotsky’s ideas about scaffolding and direct instruction in the classroom?
25 Student as Learners Howard Gardner Theory of Multiple Intelligences Linguistic (verbal) Musical, Spatial, Logical-mathematical Bodily-kinesthetic (movement) Interpersonal (understanding others) Intrapersonal (understanding self) Naturalist
26 Student as Learners What does Gardner’s work on multiple intelligences suggest about planning instruction?
27 Student as Learners Abraham Maslow Humans have a hierarchy of needs ranging from lower-level needs for survival and safety to higher-level needs for intellectual achievement and finally self-actualization Self-actualization – fulfilling one’s potential
28 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
29 Student as Learners What does Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs suggest for motivation for learning in the classroom?
30 Student as Learners B.F. Skinner Operant conditioning – a form of learning whereby a response increases in frequency as a result of its being followed by reinforcement When behaviors are followed by desirable consequences, they tend to increase in frequency When behaviors do not produce results, they typically decrease and may even disappear altogether
31 Student as Learners Erik Erikson Eight stages of psychosocial development Developmental crisis – conflict between a positive alternative and a potentially unhealthy alternative The way in which the individual resolves each crisis will have a lasting effect on that person’s self-image and view of society
32 Student as Learners Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages Trust vs. mistrust Autonomy vs. shame/doubt Initiative vs. guilt Industry vs. inferiority Identity vs. role confusion Intimacy vs. isolation Generativity vs. stagnation Ego integrity vs. despair
33 Student as Learners Lawrence Kohlberg Moral dilemmas – situations in which no choice is clearly and indisputably right Stages of moral reasoning Level I – Preconventional Moral Reasoning – judgment is based own person needs and others’ rules Level 2 – Conventional Moral Reasoning – judgment is based on others; approval, family expectations, traditional values, laws of society, and loyalty to country
34 Student as Learners Lawrence Kohlberg Stages of moral reasoning Level 3 – Postconventional Moral Reasoning – social contract and universal ethics Moral reasoning – the thinking process involved in judgments about questions of right and wrong
35 Student as Learners Carol Gilligan Proposed a different sequence of moral development, an Ethic of Care Individuals move from a focus on self-interest to moral reasoning based on commitment to specific individuals and relationships, and then to the highest level of morality based on the principles of responsibilities and care for all people
36 Student as Learners Constructivism – a theoretical perspective that proposes that learners construct a body of knowledge from their experiences—knowledge that may or may not be an accurate representation of external reality.
37 Student as Learners Metacognition – One’s knowledge and beliefs about one’s own cognitive processes, and one’s resulting attempts to regulate those cognitive processes to maximize learning and memory Knowledge about our own thinking processes
38 Student as Learners Schemata (plural for schema) – In contemporary cognitive psychology, an organized body of knowledge about a specific topic Basic structures for organizing information, concepts
39 Student as Learners Transfer – A phenomenon whereby something that an individual has learned at one time affects how the individual learns or performs in a later situation Influence of previously learned material on new material
40 Student as Learners Bloom’s Taxonomy – a taxonomy in which six learning tasks, varying in degrees of complexity, are identified for the cognitive domain: Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
41 Student as Learners Make sure you can recognize the differences between lower-order and higher-order thinking in classroom activities, using Bloom’s taxonomy.
42 Student as Learners Intrinsic motivation – the internal desire to perform a particular task; motivation associated with activities that are their own reward Extrinsic motivation – motivation promoted by factors external to the individual and unrelated to the task being performed; motivation created by external factors (reward or punishment)
43 Students as Diverse Learners Learning styles – characteristic approaches to learning and studying
44 Students as Diverse Learners Performance Modes Concrete operational thinking (Piaget) Late elementary to middle school Mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations Visual and aural learners
45 Students as Diverse Learners Gender differences Cultural expectations and styles
46 Areas of exceptionality in student learning: Visual and perceptual difficulties Special physical or sensory challenges Learning disabilities Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD); Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Functional mental retardation
47 Legislation and institutional responsibilities relating to exceptional students: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Inclusion Mainstreaming Least Restrictive Environment IEP – what’s included?
48 Approaches for accommodating various learning styles, intelligences, or exceptionalities: Differentiated instruction Alternative assessments Testing modifications
49 Student learning is influenced by: Individual experiences Individual talents Prior learning Language Culture Family Community Values
50 Consider: Multicultural backgrounds Age-appropriate knowledge and behavior The student culture at the school Family backgrounds Linguistic patterns and differences Cognitive patterns and differences Social and emotional issues
51 Let’s practice…
52 Identify and describe a strength and/or weakness in: a lesson plan for meeting needs of individual students with identified special needs, as described in the case Based on IEP goals? Age/level appropriate? Achievable? Accommodations needed? Other?
53 Identify and describe a strength and/or weakness in: the interaction between the teacher and students in terms of culturally responsive teaching Is teacher aware of cultural implications? Does teacher appear to value culture? Does teacher include families? Does teacher understand culture?
54 Propose a strategy for: helping students with ADD problems stay on task improving performance of students who don’t do well on homework, original compositions or other assignments helping students for whom English isn’t the first language build literacy skills and improve in academic areas
55 Propose a strategy for: helping students see issues from different points of view adapting instruction and/or assessment for an individual student with identified needs building positive relationships with a student who is very turned off to school
56 Propose a strategy for: meeting the needs of a wide range of students (especially students with learning difficulties and students who are accelerated)
57 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Correlational relationship – the extent to which two variables are related to each other, such that when one variable increases, the other either increases or decreases in a somewhat predictable manner
58 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Causal relationship – explains why behaviors occurs
59 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Learned helplessness – a general belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment
60 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Self-efficacy – the belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or reaching certain goals
61 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Reinforcement – the act of following a particular response with a reinforcer and thereby increasing the frequency of that response
62 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Positive reinforcement – a consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus.
63 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Negative reinforcement – a consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal (rather than presentation) of a stimulus.
64 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Shaping – a process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations of a desired terminal behavior
65 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Extinction – In classical conditioning, the eventual disappearance of a conditioned response as a result of the conditioned stimulus being repeatedly presented alone In operant conditioning, the eventual disappearance of a response that is no longer being reinforced
66 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Punishment – a consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows
67 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Continuous reinforcement – reinforcing a response every time it occurs
68 Student Motivation and the Learning Environment Intermittent reinforcement – reinforcing a response only occasionally, with some occurrences of the response going unreinforced
69 Instruction and Assessment Instructional Strategies The major cognitive processes associated with student learning, including: Critical thinking Creative thinking Higher-order thinking Inductive and deductive thinking Problem-structuring and problem-solving Invention Memorization and recall
70 Instruction and Assessment Major categories of instructional strategies, including: Cooperative learning Direct instruction Discover learning Whole-group discussion Independent study Interdisciplinary instruction Concept mapping Inquiry method Questioning
71 Instruction and Assessment Direct Instruction Madeline Hunter’s “Effective Teaching Model” David Ausubel’s “Advance Organizers” Mastery learning Demonstrations Mnemonics Note-taking Outlining Use of visual aids
73 Instruction and Assessment Critical thinking – Evaluating the accuracy and worth of information of arguments. Creative thinking – New and original behavior yields an appropriate and productive result. High-order thinking – Thought that involves going beyond information specifically learned (e.g., application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation).
74 Instruction and Assessment Inductive thinking – Formulating general principles based on knowledge of examples and details Deductive thinking – Drawing conclusions by applying rules of principles; logically moving from a general rule or principle to a specific solution Problem solving – Creating new solutions for problems
75 Instruction and Assessment Inquiry method – Approach in which the teacher presents a puzzling situation and students solve the problem by gathering data and testing their conclusions Discovery learning - Bruner’s approach, in which students work on their own to discover basic principles Simulations – The idea that skills and knowledge are tied to simulation in which they were learned and difficult to apply in new settings.
76 Instruction and Assessment Cooperative Learning – An approach to instruction whereby students work with their classmates to achieve group goals and help on another learn. Direct Instruction – An approach to instruction that uses a variety of techniques (brief explanations, teacher questioning, rapid pacing, guided and independent practice) to promote learning of basic skills.
77 Instruction and Assessment Discovery Learning – An approach to instruction whereby students develop an understanding of a topic, through firsthand interaction with the physical or social environment. Concept Mapping – A diagram of concepts within an instructional unit and the interrelationships among them.
78 Instruction and Assessment Madeline Hunter “Effective Teaching Model” – Get students set to learn Provide information effectively Check for understanding and give guided practice Allow for independent practice
79 Instruction and Assessment Mastery Learning – An approach to instruction whereby students learn one topic thoroughly before moving to a more difficult one. Mnemonics – A special memory aid or trick designed to help students learning and remember a specific piece of information.
80 Instruction and Assessment Methods for enhancing student learning through the use of a variety of resources and materials Computers, Internet resources, Web pages, e-mail Audio-visual technologies such as videotapes and compact discs Local experts Primary documents and artifacts Field trips Libraries Service Learning
81 Instruction and Assessment Techniques for planning instruction to meet curriculum goals, including the incorporation of learning theory, subject matter, curriculum development and student development National and state learning standards State and local curriculum frameworks State and local curriculum guides Scope and sequence in specific disciplines Units and lessons Behavioral objectives: affective, cognitive, psychomotor Learner objectives and outcomes
82 Instruction and Assessment Techniques for creating effective bridges between curriculum goals and students’ experiences Modeling Guided practice Independent practice, including homework Transitions Activating students’ prior knowledge Anticipating preconceptions Encouraging exploration and problem-solving Building new skills on those previously acquired
83 Instruction and Assessment Measurement theory and assessment-related issues Types of assessments Standardized tests – Tests given, usually nationwide, under uniform procedures Norm-referenced – Assessment of students’ achievement in relation to one another Criterion-referenced – Testing in which scores are compared to a set performance standard Achievement tests – Standardized test measuring how much students have learned in a given content area.
84 Instruction and Assessment Aptitude tests – Tests meant to predict future performance Structured observations Anecdotal notes Assessment of prior knowledge – reminding students of information they have already learned relative to a new topic Student responses during a lesson Portfolios – A systematic collection of a student’s work over a lengthy period of time Essays written to prompts Journals Self-evaluation – The process of evaluating one’s own performance or behavior Performance assessment – Assessment in which students demonstrate their knowledge and skills in a nonwritten fashion
85 Instruction and Assessment Characteristics of Assessments Validity – The extent to which an assessment instrument actually measures what it is intended to measure. Reliability – The extent to which an assessment instrument yields consistent information about the knowledge, skills, and abilities one is trying to measure Norm-referenced – A score that indicates how a student’s performance on an assessment compares with the average performance of other students (I.e., with the performance of a norm group)
86 Instruction and Assessment Criterion-referenced – A test score that specifically indicates what students know and can do. Mean - The arithmetic average of a set of scores. It is calculated by adding all scores and then dividing by the total number of people who have obtained those scores. Median – Middle score in a group of scores Mode – Most frequently occurring score Sampling strategy Scoring assessments Analytical scoring – Scoring students’ performance on an assessment by evaluating various aspects of their performance separately
87 Instruction and Assessment Holistic scoring – Summarizing students’ performance on an assessment with a single score Rubrics – A list of components that performance on an assessment task should ideally include; used to guide the scoring of students’ responses Reporting assessment results Percentile rank – A test score that indicates the percentage of people in the norm group getting a raw score less than or equal to a particular student’s raw score. Stanine – A standard score with a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 2; it is always reported as a whole number
88 Instruction and Assessment Mastery levels Raw score – A test score based solely on the number or point value of correctly answered items Grade equivalent score – Measure of grade level based on comparison with norming samples for each grade Standard deviation – A statistic that reflects how close together or far apart a set of scores are and thereby indicates the variability of the scores Standard error of measurement – A statistic estimating the amount of error likely to be present in a particular score on a test or other assessment instrument Scaled Score
89 Instruction and Assessment Uses of assessments Formative evaluation – An evaluation conducted during instruction to facilitate students’ learning Summative evaluation – An evaluation conducted after instruction is completed and used to assess students’ final achievement Diagnostic evaluation
90 Communication Techniques Basic, effective verbal and nonverbal communication techniques The effect of cultural and gender differences on communications in the classroom Types of questions that can stimulate discussion in different ways for particular purposes Probing for learner understanding Helping students articulate their ideas and thinking processes Promoting risk-taking and problem-solving Facilitating factual recall Encouraging convergent and divergent thinking Stimulating curiosity Helping students to question
91 Profession and Community The reflective practitioner Types of resources available for professional development and learning Professional literature Colleagues Professional associations Professional development activities
92 Profession and Community Why personal reflection on teaching practices is critical, and approaches that can be used to reflect and evaluate The larger community The role of the school as a resource to the larger community Factors in the students’ environment outside of school (family circumstances, community environments, health and economic conditions) that may influence students’ life and learning Basic strategies for involving parents/guardians and leaders in the community in the educational process
93 Profession and Community Major laws related to students’ rights and teacher responsibilities Equal education Appropriate education for handicapped Confidentiality and privacy Appropriate treatment of students Reporting in situations related to possible child abuse