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1 Achieving quality in basic education through improvement of training of trainers in Teacher Training Schools in Niger.

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1 1 Achieving quality in basic education through improvement of training of trainers in Teacher Training Schools in Niger

2 2 TEAM RESEARCHERS GOZA SANDI Nana Aicha (College of Education / University of Niamey) GOZA SANDI Nana Aicha (College of Education / University of Niamey) KALLEKOYE Zoumari Issa (College of Education / University of Niamey) KALLEKOYE Zoumari Issa (College of Education / University of Niamey) MOUNKAILA Harouna (College of Education / University of Niamey) MOUNKAILA Harouna (College of Education / University of Niamey) SALIFOU Karimoune (College of Education / University of Niamey) SALIFOU Karimoune (College of Education / University of Niamey) BOUKATA Amadou (MINISTRY OF BASIC EDUCATION Niamey) BOUKATA Amadou (MINISTRY OF BASIC EDUCATION Niamey) SEYDOU Abdou, Associate Researcher (Ministry of Basic Education) SEYDOU Abdou, Associate Researcher (Ministry of Basic Education)

3 3 OUTLINE

4 4 OUTLINE (cont’d) INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION I. CONTEXT OF STUDY I. CONTEXT OF STUDY II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM III.RESEARCH QUESTIONS III.RESEARCH QUESTIONS IV. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY IV. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY V. STUDY HYPOTHESIS V. STUDY HYPOTHESIS

5 5 OUTLINE (CONT’D) VILITTERATURE REVIEW VILITTERATURE REVIEW VIICONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK VIICONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK VIIIRESEARCH METHODOLOGY VIIIRESEARCH METHODOLOGY IXSIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY IXSIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY XBIBLIOGRAPHY XBIBLIOGRAPHY XIANNEXES XIANNEXES

6 6 INTRODUCTION NIGER has one of the highest population growth rates of 3.3% and a fertility rate of 7.5 children per woman. The population of Niger has more than doubled from 5.1 million in1977 to 11.1 million in 2001 ( POPULATION CENSUS ). Children under 15 years of age represent half of the population, the highest in Sub- Sahara Africa.

7 7 I. CONTEXT Niger is engaged in vast reforms with a view to improving the performance of its education system and to reaching the objectives of Education For All and of Millennium Development Goals. That is the reason why the country has embarked on a 10-year Program of Education Development (PDDE)

8 8 CONTEXT (cont’d) In the process of implementing the PDDE, a thorough diagnosis of the country’s education system was carried out in The following weaknesses were therefore identified : In the process of implementing the PDDE, a thorough diagnosis of the country’s education system was carried out in The following weaknesses were therefore identified :

9 9 Context (cont’d) A very limited development of the education system coupled with marked disparities : A very limited development of the education system coupled with marked disparities : 54.6 % of children of 7 to 12 years old do not have access to primary education. ; 54.6 % of children of 7 to 12 years old do not have access to primary education. ; only 13 % of children of 13 to 16 years old have access to secondary schools ; only 13 % of children of 13 to 16 years old have access to secondary schools ; and 80.1 % of adults are illiterate and 80.1 % of adults are illiterate

10 10 CONTEXT (cont’d) Profound gender gaps (54.2 %) for boys versus 36.5 % for girls in ) ; Profound gender gaps (54.2 %) for boys versus 36.5 % for girls in ) ; Disparities between rural areas (44.3 %) and urban areas (87.1 %) in ; Disparities between rural areas (44.3 %) and urban areas (87.1 %) in ; Disparities between regions (94.9 % in Niamey versus 32.9, 39.3 and 40 % respectively in Zinder, Diffa and Tahoua in ) ; Disparities between regions (94.9 % in Niamey versus 32.9, 39.3 and 40 % respectively in Zinder, Diffa and Tahoua in ) ;

11 11 CONTEXT (cont’d) Very low intraschool performances characterized by : Very low intraschool performances characterized by : very high class repetition rates (36 % at Primary 6 and 39 Secondary 4) ; very high class repetition rates (36 % at Primary 6 and 39 Secondary 4) ; high rates of failure at cycle final exams (52.8 % at CFEPD (Primary), and 46.7 % at Secondary School Entrance exam in ) ; high rates of failure at cycle final exams (52.8 % at CFEPD (Primary), and 46.7 % at Secondary School Entrance exam in ) ; high rates of school leavers in literacy centers (53 %) high rates of school leavers in literacy centers (53 %)

12 12 CONTEXT (cont’d) This program (PDDE) aims at improving access and quality : This program (PDDE) aims at improving access and quality : ACESS: The general objective assigned to this component is to contribute to a better access and accessibility to primary education through an increase and greater distribution of educational facilities and enrolment ACESS: The general objective assigned to this component is to contribute to a better access and accessibility to primary education through an increase and greater distribution of educational facilities and enrolment

13 13 CONTEXT (cont’d) QUALITY: This concept aims at the general following objectives : Increase completion rates in Primary and Junior Secondary ; Increase completion rates in Primary and Junior Secondary ; improve learners’ performances improve learners’ performances

14 14 II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM To meet the requirements set by the PDDE, 27, 723 Primary school teachers are expected to be trained by 2015, i.e., about 3000 teachers per year. To meet the requirements set by the PDDE, 27, 723 Primary school teachers are expected to be trained by 2015, i.e., about 3000 teachers per year.

15 15 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM (cont’d) Learners’ class performances and their success rates to the final exams are undoubtedly the indicators of the quality of the education system. In Niger, all the evaluations carried out by the PASEC (CONFEMEN), the MLA (UNESCO) and the SEDEP (MEBA) unanimously pointed out that the level of acquisition / learning in Niger is the lowest in Sub – Sahara Africa. Learners’ class performances and their success rates to the final exams are undoubtedly the indicators of the quality of the education system. In Niger, all the evaluations carried out by the PASEC (CONFEMEN), the MLA (UNESCO) and the SEDEP (MEBA) unanimously pointed out that the level of acquisition / learning in Niger is the lowest in Sub – Sahara Africa.

16 16 UNESCO results data UNESCO results data Table : Comparative Basic Knowledge Test Results Source : World Bank Average Pass rate in reading and writing Average Pass rate in Mathematics Average Pass rate in Life skills NIGER44,238,447,7 MLA COUNTRIES 53,447,260,8

17 17 Table : Results on pupils skills in French LevelsNumber of pupils reach or go belong mastery line CP9,9 % CE 214,3 % CM 212,89 % Source : SEDEP / Final Report - 27/11/2000

18 18 Table : Results on pupils skills in Maths LevelsPercent CP52,37 % CE 237,18 % CM 241,53 % Source : SEDEP / Rapport final/Mathématiques / NiGER (2000)

19 19 III.RESEARCH QUESTIONS What are the consequences of the lack of motivation of TTS trainers upon their trainees ?What are the consequences of the lack of motivation of TTS trainers upon their trainees ? Can training be efficient without adequate learning materials ?Can training be efficient without adequate learning materials ? Which competences are necessary for TTS trainers to provide quality training ?Which competences are necessary for TTS trainers to provide quality training ?

20 20 RESEARCH QUESTIONS (cont’d) How can insufficient incentives to training influence trainers professional value ? How can insufficient incentives to training influence trainers professional value ? What sort of opinions does the lack of motivation of trainers instil in trainees mind?What sort of opinions does the lack of motivation of trainers instil in trainees mind? Does a very mobile teaching staff acquire enough experience to provide a quality service ? Does a very mobile teaching staff acquire enough experience to provide a quality service ?

21 21 IV. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this study is thus to help the country’s decision – makers to utilize scarce resources effectively an efficiently. To achieve its quality in the struggle for education for all, the stress should be put on the training of trainers The aim of this study is thus to help the country’s decision – makers to utilize scarce resources effectively an efficiently. To achieve its quality in the struggle for education for all, the stress should be put on the training of trainers

22 22 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY (cont’d) A well – trained teacher is in fact a step towards settling the problems of class – repletion and drop-outs. Similarly, it could promote the school integration into the community A well – trained teacher is in fact a step towards settling the problems of class – repletion and drop-outs. Similarly, it could promote the school integration into the community

23 23 General objectives : Analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the training of trainers so as to improve quality in education, with is the pillar in the overall policy of the Ministry of Basic Education. Analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the training of trainers so as to improve quality in education, with is the pillar in the overall policy of the Ministry of Basic Education.

24 24 Specific objectives Analyze the work conditions of staff Analyze the work conditions of staff Analyze their profile Analyze their profile Analyze class practice of TTS trainers Analyze class practice of TTS trainers Identify the gaps to be filled Identify the gaps to be filled

25 25 Specific objectives (cont’d) Provide decision – markers with data that will help them implement efficient training of trainers policy Provide training institutions (colleges) with actual training needs so as to devise and implement sound training courses.

26 26 V.STUDY HYPOTHESIS The poor professional quality of TTS trainers is linked to : Inadequate professional tutoring ; Inadequate professional tutoring ; Lack of motivation. Lack of motivation.

27 27 SCOPE OF STUDY SCOPE OF STUDY The study will cover the five Teachers Training Schools (ENI) of the country, i.e., approximatively150 trainers of trainers. The study will cover the five Teachers Training Schools (ENI) of the country, i.e., approximatively150 trainers of trainers.

28 28 SCOPE OF STUDY (cont’d) TTS Staff Catégories DossoMaradiTahouaTillaberyZinderTotal% High School Teachers % Assistants % Primary schools Inspectors % J.S.S TEACHERS % SUPERVISORS % Physical Ed. Teachers % School Teachers % Total :…………… %

29 29 VI. LITERATURE REVIEW... learners are confronted with learning obstacles and some of them cannot make it at all, with all dramatic consequences that lie behind their failure.... learners are confronted with learning obstacles and some of them cannot make it at all, with all dramatic consequences that lie behind their failure.

30 30 LITERATURE REVIEW (cont’d) Develay M. (1996) points out that ‘’there is no fatality in that, and that if school as an institution cannot alone heal all the wounds of the community, a better training of teachers is likely to fight back school set – backs in a significant way... Develay M. (1996) points out that ‘’there is no fatality in that, and that if school as an institution cannot alone heal all the wounds of the community, a better training of teachers is likely to fight back school set – backs in a significant way...

31 31 Training of teachers before independence Training of teachers before independence The nigerien educational system shows important changes in its progression, mainly as regard to the training of trainers. The nigerien educational system shows important changes in its progression, mainly as regard to the training of trainers. However, no sound and well established training policy has been elaborated. However, no sound and well established training policy has been elaborated. Trainers of trainers are usually recruited without prior training. Trainers of trainers are usually recruited without prior training.

32 32 VII. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The present frame is borrowed from Gerard (2001). It will not only help a better understanding of strategies to enhance quality in training trainers of trainers, factors preventing and/or facilitating quality in education, but it will also help select adequate The present frame is borrowed from Gerard (2001). It will not only help a better understanding of strategies to enhance quality in training trainers of trainers, factors preventing and/or facilitating quality in education, but it will also help select adequate

33 33 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK (cont’d) GERARD (2001) summarizes these five (5) dimensions as follow : GERARD (2001) summarizes these five (5) dimensions as follow : EQUITYPERFORMANCE EQUITYPERFORMANCE COMMITMENT COMMITMENT BALANCECOMPETENCE BALANCECOMPETENCE

34 Performance To be of quality a training course must be performing. There are two (2) types of internal performance : To be of quality a training course must be performing. There are two (2) types of internal performance : Evaluating internal performance Evaluating internal performance Evaluating External Performance Evaluating External Performance

35 Evaluating internal performance In the education systems, the indicators commonly used to assess internal performance include success in exams, class repetitions, drop- outs, certificates or comparing the sum of skills achieved at the entry and the end of a training cycle In the education systems, the indicators commonly used to assess internal performance include success in exams, class repetitions, drop- outs, certificates or comparing the sum of skills achieved at the entry and the end of a training cycle

36 36 Evaluating internal performance (cont’d) Candidates Enlisted96,68876,56572,22185,948100,161 Passed29,10236,16838,79951,61665,575 % of pass

37 Evaluating External Performance One way to achieve that objective is to see the number of unemployed students just after completion of their studies, the number of job requests not yet satisfied, but also the quantity of job opportunities from companies that are not met because of lack of qualified labor- hand, etc One way to achieve that objective is to see the number of unemployed students just after completion of their studies, the number of job requests not yet satisfied, but also the quantity of job opportunities from companies that are not met because of lack of qualified labor- hand, etc

38 Equity of Training System The concept of equity results from social justice : the more equitable a system, the fewer the disparities between rich and poor are. The concept of equity results from social justice : the more equitable a system, the fewer the disparities between rich and poor are. The following Table illustrates how profound the disparities can be (stats Directory, MEBA ).:

39 39 Equity of Training System (cont’d) Enrolment Gross Literacy rate Completion rate Total Boys Girls Urban centers Rural areas485133

40 Efficiency in a training system Efficiency is related to performance. Evaluating efficiency should therefore take into consideration all resources used in training, financial, human, strategies and methods, time dedicated to training Efficiency is related to performance. Evaluating efficiency should therefore take into consideration all resources used in training, financial, human, strategies and methods, time dedicated to training

41 Balance in an educational system Balance is a component of the pedagogical dimension. In effect, a well-trained teacher is he/she who is able to take into account all the dimensions of knowledge. He therefore seeks to : Balance is a component of the pedagogical dimension. In effect, a well-trained teacher is he/she who is able to take into account all the dimensions of knowledge. He therefore seeks to :

42 42 Balance in an educational system (cont’d) help learners to know how, to have skills and knowledge ; help learners to know how, to have skills and knowledge ; cover cognitive, physical and socio- affective fields ; cover cognitive, physical and socio- affective fields ; integrate those skills so as the learner not only acquire knowledge, but also and mainly use those elements to move gradually towards competences that will help him to manage various situations integrate those skills so as the learner not only acquire knowledge, but also and mainly use those elements to move gradually towards competences that will help him to manage various situations

43 Commitment The first and essential quality of any training system is to give learners (pupils, students, unemployed, civil servants) the desire to learn and to engage them in the entire teaching/learning process. The first and essential quality of any training system is to give learners (pupils, students, unemployed, civil servants) the desire to learn and to engage them in the entire teaching/learning process.

44 44 Commitment (cont’d) The following quality indicators will be analysed : do teachers see their role as a pleasant duty or as a burden ? Does evaluation stress on successes or failures ? Is the pupil an active participant to the learning process or a passive attendant of the teacher’s lecture ? The following quality indicators will be analysed : do teachers see their role as a pleasant duty or as a burden ? Does evaluation stress on successes or failures ? Is the pupil an active participant to the learning process or a passive attendant of the teacher’s lecture ?

45 45 VIII. - METHODOLOGY Target Group Instruments Of collect AdministrationTraine rs ParticipantsTotal QuestionnairesDEF IC DRH/ MEBA ENI Head teach. ENI Study heads School Teach. Assist H.Teach Special section Interviews Target group Observation sheet

46 46 IX - SCOPE OF STUDY This study aims at helping decision - makers to be aware of the importance of an educational policy in the training of trainers. This study aims at helping decision - makers to be aware of the importance of an educational policy in the training of trainers.

47 47 SCOPE OF STUDY (cont’d) It will also enable the department of basic and in-service training to have access to resources susceptible of improving their decision-taking ability. Eventually, this study will enable the University to devise adequate programme. It will also enable the department of basic and in-service training to have access to resources susceptible of improving their decision-taking ability. Eventually, this study will enable the University to devise adequate programme.


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