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Socrates-Erasmus project 69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information.

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Presentation on theme: "Socrates-Erasmus project 69077-IC-1-1999-1-LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge Management

2 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge Management MOCURIS teaching materials Presentation for lecturers Janis Grundspenkis and Marite Kirikova Devision of Systems Theory Riga Technical University

3 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge Management Philosophy This module presents a framework for understanding the role of knowledge management in modern competitive and innovative organizations. It is an advanced level module for Knowledge Engineering career track covering broad subject area and is addressed to IS developers career track. This module trains to create human-centered flexible enterprise- wide information infrastructure that effectively supports knowledge capturing, storage, development, distribution and transfer. It introduces to knowledge management tools, such as knowledge flow enablers, knowledge navigation systems and tools, corporate memories, knowledge repositories and tools aimed for identification, creation, storage, suppliance, access, dissemination, reuse and preservation of knowledge in knowledge base.

4 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Objectives Understand the role of Knowledge Management in modern organizations Use information technology for knowledge management Use intelligent agent technologies and multi agent systems for knowledge management Apply knowledge management systems

5 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Keywords Knowledge Knowledge management Knowledge management systems Knowledge management tools Organizational memory

6 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Topics (1) Paradigm shift from data, information management to knowledge management Knowledge management definitions and components Knowledge sources and knowledge types and life cycles of organizational knowledge Knowledge generation, codification and transfer Typologies of knowledge management sub-process Knowledge management approaches Knowledge assets

7 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Topics (2) Concepts of memory in knowledge management Knowledge management tools Knowledge engineering in knowledge management Knowledge management platforms Knowledge management and information systems Implementing knowledge management in organizations

8 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Paradigm shift of data, information management to knowledge management Definitions of data, information, and knowledge Differences between data, information and knowledge From data administration to knowledge management Roots of knowledge management Related management areas Knowledge management

9 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Definitions of Data Data is a set of discrete, objective facts about events. In an organizational context, data is most usefully described as structured records of transactions. Data is essential raw material for the creation of information.

10 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Definitions of Information Collection of Data is called Information Data becomes information when its creator adds meaning. Information is data endowed with relevance and purpose.

11 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Definition of Knowledge (1) Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, expert insight, and grounded intuition that provides an environment and framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories, but also in organizational routines, processes, practices and norms

12 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Definitions of Knowledge (2) Knowledge consists of truths, and beliefs, perspectives and concepts, judgments and expectations, methodologies and know-how. Knowledge is the whole set of insights, experiences, and procedures that are considered correct and true and that therefore guide the thoughts, behaviors, and communications of the people. Knowledge is reasoning about the information and data to actively enable performance, problem-solving, decision-making, learning, and teaching.

13 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Aamodt A., Nygārd M. Different roles and mutual dependencies of data, information and knowledge - An AI perspective on their integration. Data &Knowledge Engineering, Difference between Data, Information, and Knowledge (1)

14 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Difference Between Data, Information, and Knowledge (2) DefinitionExample Data is basically just raw facts and figures. No single piece of data can be useful by itself, as it does not provide good business information. The number 37 is data. Information is data which has been processed and has now got some meaning behind it. 37% of people eat junk food every day. Knowledge is an understanding of the information which has been given. Those 37% of people lead a very unhealthy lifestyle which could lead to bad problems. 1. Adapted from ICT/StudentWork/HannahSawyer.ppt

15 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level From data administration to KM TimeFocus on Mid 1970sDB administration, Mid 1980sData administration Late 1980sData management 1990sInformation management Late 1990s/2000sKnowledge management

16 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Roots of KM Organizational science Computer science and management information systems Management science Psychology and sociology

17 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Related management areas Change management Quality management Human resource management Innovation management Strategic management

18 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge management definitions and components KM Definitions KM Components KM system

19 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM Definitions (1) Stress Systematic and Formal Aspects Knowledge Management is a the systematic, explicit, and deliberate building, renewal, and application of knowledge to maximize an enterprises knowledge-related effectiveness and returns from its knowledge assets. Knowledge Management is the formalization of and access to experience, Knowledge, and expertise that create new capabilities, enable superior performance, encourage innovation, and enhance custom value. KM involves the identification and analysis of available and required knowledge, and the subsequent planning and control of actions to develop knowledge assets so as to fulfill organization objectives.

20 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM Definitions (2) View KM as a Process Knowledge Management is the process of creating value from an organization’s intangible assets. Knowledge Management is defined as a process through which organization’s create, store and utilize their collective knowledge. Knowledge Management is the process of capturing company’s collective expertise whenever it resides-in databases, on paper, or in peoples heads-and distributing it to whenever if can help produces the biggest profit.

21 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM Definitions (3) Focusing on Organizational Aspects Knowledge Management is getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time so they can make the best decision. Knowledge Management is the art of creating value from an organization’s intangible assets. Knowledge Management is the explicit control and management of knowledge within the organization aimed at achieving the company’s objective. Knowledge Management means exactly the management of organizational knowledge of creating greater value and generating a competitive advantage.

22 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM components (1) From the point of view of knowledge flow The flow of knowledge Knowledge cryptography Communities of knowledge workers Knowledge repositories and libraries

23 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM components (2) From the technical viewpoint Software interface Access and authentication tools Collaborative intelligence tools Application level software Transport level software Middleware and legacy integration software Repositories

24 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM system (1) Knowledge KM life cycle KM system Relation of terms: knowledge, KM life cycle, KM system is used in is supported by

25 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM system (2) Definition Knowledge management system (KMS) is an information and communication technology (ICT) system in the sense of an application system or an ICT platform that combines and integrates functions for the contextualized handling of both, explicit and tacit knowledge, throughout the organization or that part of the organization that is targeted by a knowledge management initiative. A KMS supports networks of knowledge workers in the creation, construction, identification, capturing, acquisition, selection, valuation, organization, linking, structuring, formalization, visualization, distribution, retention, maintenance, refinement, evolution, accessing, search and last but not least the application of knowledge the aim of which is to support the dynamics of organizational learning and organizational effectiveness.

26 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM system (3) Seven layers architecture for developing a KMS Interface layer Access and authentication layer Collaborative intelligence and filtering Application layer Transport layer Middleware and legacy integration layer Repositories

27 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge sources and types Knowledge sources Knowledge types

28 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge sources (1) Kirikova M., Grundspenkis J., Types of Knowledge and Knowledge Sources, Scientific Proceedings of Riga Technical University, Computer Science, 2002.

29 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge sources (2) Kirikova M., Grundspenkis J., Types of Knowledge and Knowledge Sources, Scientific Proceedings of Riga Technical University, Computer Science, 2002.

30 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge Types (1) Tacit knowledge (Subjective) Explicit knowledge (Objective) Knowledge of experience (body) Simultaneous knowledge (here and now) Analog knowledge (practice) Knowledge of rationality (mind) Sequential knowledge (there and then) Digital knowledge (theory)

31 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge Types (2) Blackler’s classification of knowledge Embrained knowledge Embodied knowledge Encultured knowledge Embedded knowledge Encoded knowledge Cognitive psychologists classification of knowledge Declarative knowledge Procedural knowledge Strategic knowledge

32 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge Types (3) Kirikova M., Grundspenkis J., Types of Knowledge and Knowledge Sources, Scientific Proceedings of Riga Technical University, Computer Science, 2002.

33 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Life cycles of organizational knowledge Knowledge conversation as life cycle of organizational knowledge The personal knowledge evolution cycle The institutional knowledge evolution cycle

34 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge conversation as life cycle of organizational knowledge CombinationInternalization Externalization ExternalizationSocialization Field Building Dialogue Linking Explicit Knowledge Learning by Doing Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Nonaka I., Takeuchi H., The Knowledge-Creating Company, 1995.

35 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level The knowledge life cycle in organizational learning processes Knowledgesources Knowledge products & services Individual knowledge Inter-subjective knowledge Institutionalized knowledge Knowledge in use share institutionalize apply learn repack reproduce

36 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Personal knowledge evolution cycle Tacit subliminal knowledge Idealistic vision and paradigm knowledge Systematic schema and reference methodology knowledge Pragmatic decision-making and factual knowledge Automatic routine working knowledge

37 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level The institutional knowledge evolution cycle Create new knowledge: learn, innovate, and research Capture and store knowledge Organize and transform knowledge Deploy knowledge Apply, use and leverage knowledge

38 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge generation, codification and transfer Knowledge generation Knowledge codification Knowledge transfer

39 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Five modes of knowledge generation Acquisition Dedicated resources Fusion Adaptation Knowledge networking The actual process of conducting research and producing new knowledge Knowledge generation

40 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Possible forms of codified knowledge Documented knowledge Mapped knowledge Modeled knowledge Knowledge codified in systems The aim of knowledge codification is to put organizational knowledge into a form that makes it accessible to those who need it. Knowledge codification

41 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge transfer (1) Knowledge transfer is the process of passing available knowledge to specified audiences Functionalities channel identification and choice, scheduling, and sending Aspects of knowledge transfer hard aspects – focus on improved access to knowledge (information), electronic communication, document repositories, and so forth; soft aspects – focus on human face-to-face communication (meetings, talk rooms etc.).

42 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge transfer (2) Complete knowledge transfer Transmission Absorption + organization’s ability to do things and increase its value improve

43 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Typologies of KM sub-processes Knowledge management process Role of KM process in organization

44 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM process (1) Knowledge Acquisition Knowledge Utilization Knowledge Sharing

45 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM process (2) Feedback Knowledge Distribute Knowledge Store Knowledge Apply Knowledge Organize Knowledge Value Knowledge Create Knowledge

46 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM process (3) Identify knowledge Define knowledge goals Create knowledge Store knowledge Distribute knowledge Apply knowledge Process triggering Continuously reproducing

47 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM process (4) Identify Capture Select Store Share Apply Create Sell

48 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM process (5) Knowledge Generation Knowledge Codification Knowledge Transfer Creation RepresentationCapture Acquisition Synthesis Fusion Adaptation

49 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Role of KM process in organization Apšvalka D, Zin ā šanu p ā rvald ī bas metožu lietojums organiz ā ciju intelektu ā l ā kapit ā la izmantošanai, Master’s thesis, Riga Technical University, 2003.

50 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM approaches Process-centred and Product-centred Enabling knowledge creation Business process oriented knowledge management

51 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Product-centered Product-centered approach focuses on knowledge documents, their creation, storage and reuse in computer-based corporate memories. It is called also IT-based approach. The typical goal is to take documents with knowledge embedded in them and store them in a repository where they can be easily retrieved. Process-centered & Product- centered approach (1)

52 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Process-centered Process-centered approach mainly understands Knowledge Management as a social communication process. Knowledge is closely tied to the person who develops it and is shared mainly trough person-to-person. The main purpose of Information Technology in this approach is to help people communicate with knowledge, not to store it. The underlying strategy here is to facilitate connections between those people who possess knowledge and those who need knowledge. Process-centered & Product- centered approach (2)

53 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Product-centeredProcess-centered Knowledge as productKnowledge as process Technologies supporting knowledge storage: Intranet Knowledge maps Semantic analysis Structured document analysis Full text retrieval File management systems Technologies supporting knowledge transfer: White boarding Net conferencing Discussion groups Real-time messaging Shared files Product & process centered approaches in KM software Process-centered &Product- centered (3)

54 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Enabling knowledge creation (1) This approach is emphasised on the assumption that knowledge cannot be managed, it is only enabled. In this approach managers need to support knowledge creation rather than control it, and it is called knowledge enabling Knowledge is dynamically created in social interactions and has a subjective nature deeply rooted in individual value systems Enabling knowledge creation includes facilitating relationships and conversations as well as sharing local knowledge across an organisation or beyond geographic and cultural borders.

55 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Enabling knowledge creation (2) Five knowledge enablers Instil a knowledge vision Manage conversation Mobilise knowledge activists Create the right context Globalise local knowledge

56 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Krogh G., Ichijo K., Nonaka I., Enabling Knowledge Creation, Oxford University Press, Enabling knowledge creation (3)

57 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Business process oriented KM (1) The operative methods and procedures used to generate, store, distribute and apply knowledge differ according to particular business process. These specific methods have to be integrated into a knowledge management approach that is oriented towards business process Corporate culture is an interwoven network of different professional cultures, functional cultures Knowledge management tasks have to be combined with daily work tasks and integrated into the daily business processes.

58 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Business process oriented KM (2) Systematic methods to integrate KM activities into the business processes The business knowledge management approach The knowledge value chain approach The building block approach The model-based knowledge management approach The reference-model for knowledge management

59 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge Assets Definitions and types of knowledge assets Intellectual capital Identifying knowledge assets Evaluating knowledge assets

60 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Definitions of Knowledge Assets Knowledge assets are the knowledge regarding markets, products, technologies and organizations, that a business owns or needs to own and which enable its business processes to generate profits, add value, etc. Knowledge asset is a guidance and support information, “owned” by the organization, that enhance stakeholders’ ability to accomplish work processes. Knowledge assets include all the underlying skills, routines, practices, principles, formulas, methods, heuristics and intuitions, whether explicit or tacit; and all the data-bases, manuals, reference works, textbooks, diagrams, displays, computer files, and artifacts in which both facts and procedures are recorded and stored. Definitions and types of knowledge assets (1)

61 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Types of knowledge assets Human knowledge assets - capabilities of the individuals Structural knowledge assets - organizational capabilities to meet market requirements Market knowledge assets - to knowledge about the market, the company's clients, partners, competitors, etc Definitions and types of knowledge assets (2)

62 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Intellectual capital Definition Intellectual capital is knowledge that can be converted into value Intellectual capital consists of Human capital – the tacit knowledge embedded in the minds of the employees; Structural capital – the organizational routines of the business; Relational capital – the knowledge embedded in the relationships established with the outside environment.

63 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Identifying knowledge assets Identify most important knowledge Determine where it is most at risk to "brain drain" Identify experts (the people with the knowledge) both internally and outside the company Learn how to capture and package knowledge (create knowledge assets)

64 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Evaluating knowledge assets Elements for evaluating knowledge potential Knowledge relevance indicator Knowledge connectivity factor Knowledge activation factor Added value in context Knowledge capturing and learning

65 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Concepts of memory in Knowledge Management Human memory Organizational memory Organizational memory system Organizational learning

66 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Human memory (1) Definitions Memory is ability to store and retrieve information Memory is a basic human ability that allows us to recall past events and knowledge. It is a concept whose importance stems from the fact that our understanding of time is one directional, forward, and all of our current actions depend upon the past knowledge and future expectations Memory is the retention of, and ability to recall, information, personal experiences, and procedures (skills and habits)

67 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Human memory (2) Three important factors concerning with memories Memories are constructions made in accordance with present needs, desires, influences, etc. Memories are often accompanied by feelings and emotions Memory usually involves awareness of the memory

68 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Human memory (3) Structure of memory Memory is a set of encoded neural connections Encoding can take place in several parts of the brain The stronger the connections, the stronger the memory Recollection of an event can occur by a stimulus to any of the parts of the brain where a neural connection for the memory occurs

69 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Human memory (4) Stores and processes of human memory Perception Sensory store Short term store Long term store recall use Deleted if not needed cognition

70 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Human memory (5) Taxonomy of human memory Adapted from: Steven P.R. Rose,

71 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Organizational memory (1) Definitions Repository for the knowledge developed jointly by multiple individual firm members in the amplification of individual learning to firm level learning Involves the use of five storage bins: individual firm members, organizational culture, transformation, structure, and ecology organizational memory has four dimensions: level – refers simply to the amount of knowledge an organization has accumulated dispersion – the extent to which memory is shared and spread across the organization by the organizational members accessibility – refers to the extent to which memory can be retrieved for use content – concerns the meaning of memory in terms of whether it is procedural (involving skills and competencies) or declarative (involving facts or events).

72 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Organizational memory (2) Content of organizational memory Knowledge Explanations Predictions Action-outcome theories Paradigm Norms Values Beliefs Information Potential knowledge Organizational memory carrier Organizationally accessible human capital Domain General

73 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Organizational memory (3) Organizational memory processes Storing organizational memory Retrieving organizational memory Representing organizational memory

74 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Organizational memory system (1) System that functions to provide a means by which knowledge from the past is brought to bear on present activities, thus resulting in increased level of effectiveness for the organization

75 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Organizational memory system (2) Six perspectives on organizational memory system OMS as a new type of the use of application systems OMS as a concept OMS in a functional view OMS as a property of information systems OMS in a behaviorists view OMS in a technological view

76 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Organizational memory system (3) Organizational memory system enabling software Databases – handling of data about memory Expert systems – formalized memory in memory base, and formal inference capabilities in inference engine Case-based reasoning – case descriptions by key terms in base, and retrieval of case by inference engine Hypertext & hypermedia – multi-media objects and a uniform user-interface consisting of links between key terms and its GroupWare variants – computer network and software to handle electronic conversations (from very formal to very informal) Model bases – database consisting of mathematical models that can be used to process data And other.

77 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Organizational memory system (4) Organizational memory system hardware components A filling system, containing an acquisition module, a classifier model and an insertation module A retrieval system, containing a browser and a query system module An interface system, for interfacing the filing/retrieval subsystems and the model and memory contents servers.

78 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Organizational learning (1) Learning is the transformation (development, maintenance and use) of organizational memory. Organizations learn in three ways: single-loop double-loop and deutero

79 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Organizational learning (2) The essence of learning organization Continuous learning at the systems level Knowledge generation and sharing Critical, systemic thinking A culture of learning A spirit of flexibility and experimentation People-centered

80 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge management tools Tools for knowledge socialization Tools for knowledge externalization Tools for knowledge combination Tools for knowledge internalization Software for collaboration

81 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Tools for knowledge socialization (1) Communication enablers Watercoolers Conversations at the water cooler or in the company cafeteria are often occasions for knowledge transfer Telephone Telephone also is a form of knowledge transfer through conversation Chat Chat is another form of informal knowledge transfer through personal conversation to electronic conversation.

82 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Tools for knowledge socialization (2) Video conferencing Is used to see the person or group with whom you are working virtually Combine virtuality with face-to-face collaboration. It enables people to exchange both video and audio across a distributed network Allows people to meet face to face in small or large groups with colleagues for meetings, corporate training, and distance learning programs without participants being required to travel to a central location

83 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Web Conferencing Enables virtual meetings where users from different locations connect, conduct meetings, and share information as if everyone were in the same room Allow participants to collaborate, share documents, and can add content to them Two Types of Web Conferencing Real-time conferencing Non-real time conferencing Tools for knowledge socialization (3)

84 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Digital Whiteboards Permits real time display of drawings, pictures or documents for group discussion and comment Can capture whatever is drawn on regular paper notepads, and store as image on a personal computer Can be networked to allow multi-user collaboration over the Internet Tools for knowledge socialization (4)

85 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Bulletin boards Bulletin boards are used to post notices and facilitate discussions on any topic Electronic bulletin boards allow users to publish live, digital content to public spaces Two types Simple bulletin boards Electronic bulletin boards Tools for knowledge socialization (5)

86 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Tools for knowledge externalization (1) Expert systems Knowledge intensive computer programs that capture the expertise of a human in limited domains of knowledge Include rule-based systems, decision trees and also case- based reasoning systems Arrives at intelligent solutions to user queries by using the rules contained in the system’s knowledge base IF {condition} THEN {do this} ELSE {do something else}

87 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Yellow Pages Web-searchable electronic version of skills list Pointers to expertise Helps on locating and discovering organizational knowledge Sample key entries in Yellow Pages Persons name Contact information (address, , telephone, web page) Professional background Practical experience Training Tools for knowledge externalization (2)

88 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Tools for knowledge externalization (3) The idea of Yellow Pages

89 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge maps Graphical representation of knowledge and its relation to organizational concepts A form for categorizing organizational knowledge systematically mapping them Consists of elements that in fact are pointers to knowledge Are designed to help people find where they have to go to get the required knowledge Yellow Pages also can be organized as a knowledge map by categorizing and representing personal profile data in specific manner Tools for knowledge externalization (4)

90 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Yellow Pages as a knowledge map Tools for knowledge externalization (5)

91 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Data warehouse Collection of summarized data from various sources, structured and optimized for query access using OLAP (on- line analytical processing) query tools Organize and collect data into databases Are used to hold explicit knowledge which helps people to create new tacit knowledge Helps company personnel to identify hidden business opportunities Improves productivity through improved access to information and knowledge Tools for knowledge externalization (6)

92 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Intelligent Agent-based tools Filtering, editing, searching, and organizing pieces of knowledge are essential though frequently overlooked components of successful knowledge management Search tools need to integrate knowledge latently existing in a company’s transaction databases, data warehouses, discussion databases, documents, informal media, and, most importantly, in people’s mind Different types of intelligent agents Search agents Browsing agents Monitoring agents E – Commerce agents Mail agents Web mastering agents Tools for knowledge externalization (7)

93 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Tools for knowledge combination (1) Intranets Designed to focus on the employee, and on improving workflow and business processes Useful for knowledge distribution, connectivity, and publishing Intranet is not only a connection medium but also a knowledge base Owing to their consistent, platform-independent access formats such as rich HTML, and a common, consistent protocol (HTTP), makes it possible to access and view documents of different file format, operating system, or communication protocol Besides information distribution and publication, intranets provide the backbone platform for push delivery of information to user’s desktops

94 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Groupware Software that supports communication and collaboration between people Groupware tools provide a document repository, remote integration, and a base for collaborative work Groupware tools consist of Group calendars Project management module File management Yellow Pages Mail & fax support Forum & chat Voting system Search Bulletin boards Conferencing And other Tools for knowledge combination (2)

95 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Forums In forums topics are posted to a website for discussion and comment where participants can follow a line of discussion on a topic These discussions give rise to a library of information on a wide variety of subjects New knowledge can be transmitted via the forums to others who have similar problems Tools for knowledge combination (3)

96 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Workflow management systems Workflow can be described simply as the movement of documents and tasks through a business process Workflow Management Systems allow organizations to define and control the various activities associated with a business process Categories of workflow applications Production Workflow Systems Messaging-based Workflow Systems Web-based Workflow Systems Suite-based Workflow Systems Tools for knowledge combination (4)

97 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Balanced scorecard The balanced scorecard is a management system (not only a measurement system) that enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action It provides feedback around both the internal business processes and external outcomes The balanced scorecard retains traditional financial measures Tools for knowledge combination (5)

98 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Tools for knowledge combination (6) Four dimensions of balanced scorecard

99 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Tools for knowledge internalization (1) Neural networks Neural network is a hardware and software that attempt to emulate the processing patterns of the biological brain Neural networks have learning capabilities A generic artificial neural network can be defined as a computational system consisting of a set of highly interconnected processing elements, called neurons Neural network becomes immensely promising when you have data but lack experts to make judgments about it But it is necessary to spend much time training the neural network, cleaning up data, and pre-processing

100 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Tools for knowledge internalization (2) Some points how neural networks can be used Neural networks can be developed for capturing the meaning of words relative to the context in which they appear Neural networks can be used in data mining Neural networks have been much applied within the medical domain. For example, for clinical diagnosis, image analysis and interpretation, signal analysis and interpretation, drug development Many other fields

101 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Case-based reasoning Case-based reasoning approach allows companies to learn from previous problems or cases to solve the present problems similar to the past ones The case-based reasoner solves new problems by using or adapting solutions that were used to solve old problems Using past knowledge gained from several projects reduce the task to a simple match and cut-and-paste job Solving the problem by analogy make the process of arriving at the solution faster, better, and easier than it would have been had if started from scratch Tools for knowledge internalization (3)

102 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Tools for knowledge internalization (4) The idea of case-based reasoning

103 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Software for collaboration (1) Tacit Active Net Helps to find people Initiate and manage collaboration Coordinate your activities automatically with those of other people across the enterprise Automatically learns about people's activities and focus, and identifies who should be talking or working together Makes it easy to locate and share files, find answers to questions, or find the online conversations you should join

104 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Software for collaboration (2) Tacit ESP Flexible software foundation for complete collaboration management Automatically discovers an individual’s business activity and expertise

105 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Software for collaboration (3) Tacit Knowledge Mail Automatically learns about the work-focus, interests, and experiences of each user Intelligently distinguish between critical business knowledge and noise Dynamic search and information-routing capabilities are integrated directly into Microsoft Outlook and Lotus Notes

106 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge Engineering in Knowledge Management Definition of knowledge engineering Differences between knowledge management and knowledge engineering Applying Knowledge Engineering to Knowledge Management

107 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Definition of knowledge engineering Knowledge Engineering is the process used to acquire and structure information about a subject. This approach serves to guide development of the integrated knowledge base required for problem solving and decision making and identify deficiencies in the knowledge base needed for planning new research Knowledge Engineering (KE) is a field within Artificial Intelligence that develops Knowledge Based Systems Knowledge consists of truths, and Beliefs, perspectives and concepts, judgments and expectations, methodologies and know- how Knowledge is the whole set of insights, experiences, and procedures that are considered correct and true and that therefore guide the thoughts, behaviors, and communications of the people.

108 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Differences between knowledge management and knowledge engineering Knowledge ManagementKnowledge Engineering Information Systems and Management Computer Science Development of organizational software and technical systems for enabling knowledge processes in organizations Development of Artificial Knowledge based Systems Whole spectrum of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Problem Solving oriented Explicit Knowledge

109 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge enfineering process Knowledge Acquisition Generation Preservation Exploration Interpretation Knowledge Elicitation Make process in the human brain transparent Transfer experts knowledge to create tangible asset Knowledge Representation Providing of theories and systems for expressing structured knowledge and for accessing and reasoning with it in a principled way. Applying Knowledge Engineering to Knowledge Management (1)

110 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Identify & Capture Encode Create Share Represent Test & Evaluate Apply Applying Knowledge Engineering to Knowledge Management (2) Knowledge ManagementKnowledge Engineering Combining the KM & KE processes Liebowitz J. Knowledge Management: Learning from Knowledge Engineering, CRC Press, 2001.

111 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level KM Platforms Lotus Notes and Domino The 4Keeps knowledge management platform NIONEX knowledge management platform Ontology Middleware: Platform for Real-World Knowledge Management

112 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Lotus Notes and Domino (1) Focuses on Human side of E- business Enabling people to use ground-breaking technology to collaborate Learn and fully leverage their collective knowledge to achieve success Integrated, Web-like environment that provides users with quicker access to and better management of many types of information including Domino and Internet-based , calendar of appointments, personal contacts and to-dos as well as Web pages, News Groups and intranet applications.

113 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Lotus Notes & Domino (2) Features Submit (check-in) documents, deliverables (project plans, drawings, ideas, architectures, patentable material, etc.), and other collaborative content that contains intellectual capital Store this in a repository that allows version control, check-out Trigger approval process using workflow to review, revise, and approve Alternatively leverage forms/templates Promote quality, reuse Provide information about the content (summaries, catalog, top 10 list) Search/Navigate using a taxonomy, etc. Locate experts in relevant topics Generate reports on knowledge gaps, usage, other metrics

114 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level The 4Keeps KM platform Integrated set of tools and technologies for building modeling tools Its purpose is to allow organizations to build and deploy knowledge management systems Provides an integrated environment for managing enterprise business information which is tailored to fit an organizations’ particular business requirements Features Repository based solutions Leverage existing tools Validate Web-enabled

115 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level NIONEX KM platform Developed on the basis of a very successful knowledge portal Permits components and functionality's such as content management systems, e-learning and established portal applications to be easily integrated into the platform to meet your requirements The NIONEX knowledge management platform is a differentiated further development of the technology framework that was used for three outstanding knowledge portals: Wissen.de, the largest free-of-charge European knowledge portal Wissens-Center, the subscriber restricted e-learning portal with the highest sales volume in Europe Sapere.it, the first and most successful knowledge portal in Italy

116 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Features Versioning (tracking changes) of knowledge bases Access control (security) system Meta-information for knowledge bases. Ontology Middleware: Platform for Real-World Knowledge Management (1) Administrative software infrastructure that makes the rest of the modules in a knowledge management toolset easier for integration in real-world applications

117 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Features of provided infrastructure A repository providing the basic storage services in a scalable and reliable fashion Multi-protocol clients access to allow different users and applications to use the system via the most efficient “transportation” media Knowledge control Support for pluggable reasoning modules suitable for various domains and applications Ontology Middleware: Platform for Real-World Knowledge Management (2)

118 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Knowledge Management and Information Systems Role of information in knowledge creation Role of IS in Knowledge Management

119 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Role of information in knowledge creation Apšvalka D, Zin ā šanu p ā rvald ī bas metožu lietojums organiz ā ciju intelektu ā l ā kapit ā la izmantošanai, Master’s thesis, Riga Technical University, 2003

120 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Role of IS in Knowledge Management (1) IS that support information flow are one essential component in knowledge management system IS and IT create a virtual environment for knowledge management The information specialist brings a fundamental skill to the knowledge environment Organization cannot develop a knowledge management environment without opening up information flows and providing access to appropriate information, nor without managing its store of explicit intellectual assets

121 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Role of IS in Knowledge Management (2) What is needed from IT and IS in knowledge management Information architecture that include languages, categories and metaphors for identifying and accounting for skills and competencies Technical architectures that are open, flexible and “social” show respect for the individual empower users Application architectures that focus on problem solving, relationship building and representation rather, than on output and transactions

122 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Role of IS in Knowledge Management (3) Hard information/knowledge Soft information/knowledge IS (part of KMS) deals with KMS

123 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level 10-step roadmap American Productivity & Quality Center’s roadmap Seven Steps to implementing KM in your organization Implementing Knowledge Management in organizations

124 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level 10-step roadmap (1) Four phases Infrastructural Evaluation KM system analysis, design, and development System development Performance evaluation I II III IV

125 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level 10-step roadmap (2) Phase 1: Infrastructural evaluation Step 1 Analyzing existing infrastructure Step 2 Aligning knowledge management and business strategy Phase 2: KM system analysis, design, and development Step 3 Designing the knowledge management architecture and integrating existing infrastructure Step 4 Auditing and analyzing existing knowledge Step 5 Designing the knowledge management team Step 6 Creating the knowledge management blueprint Step 7 Developing the knowledge management system

126 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level 10-step roadmap (3) Phase 3: System Deployment Step 8 Deploying with RDI methodology Step 9 Change management, culture, reward structure design, and choice of the CKO Phase 4: Performance Evaluation Step 10 Measuring results of knowledge management, devising ROI metrics, and evaluating system performance.

127 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level American Productivity & Quality Center’s roadmap (1) Five stages Get started Develop a strategy Design and lunch a KM initiative Expand and support I II III IV Institutionalize KM V

128 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level American productivity & quality center’s road map (2) Stage I Get Started Activity 1 Make the concepts of KM real for others in your organization Activity 2 Identify others to support the development of KM Activity 3 Look for windows of opportunity to introduce the benefits of KM Activity 4 Capitalize on the Internet and enlist the IT department to provide tools and a balanced view of KM Stage II Develop a Strategy Activity 1 Form a KM task force Activity 2 Select pilots or identify current initiatives that could work as pilots Activity 3 Find the resources to support the pilot

129 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level American productivity & quality center’s road map (2) Stage III Design and Lunch a KM Initiative Activity 1 Fund the pilots Activity 2 Develop methodologies that can be replicated Activity 3 Capture lessons learned Stage IV Expand and Support Activity 4 Develop an expansion strategy Activity 5 Communicate and market the strategy Activity 6 Manage growth

130 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level American productivity & quality center’s road map (3) Stage V Institutionalize Knowledge Management Activity 1 Embed KM in the business model Activity 2 Realign the organization's structure and budget Activity 3 Monitor the health of KM Activity 4 Align performance evaluation and rewards with KM strategy Activity 5 Balance an organizational KM framework with local control Activity 6 Continue the journey

131 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Seven Steps to implementing KM in your organization (1) Step 1: KM Vision Development Understanding where your organisation is now in terms of KM Identifying where your organisation wants to be Using the KM vision framework to identify a strategy Step 2: Knowledge Assessment Identify the areas of knowledge most important to the business Which knowledge assets would be of most value to the business to better develop and leverage Assessing the organizational readiness

132 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Seven Steps to implementing KM in your organization (2) Step 3: KM Strategy and Framework development Prominent KM strategies Review of different KM frameworks Development of KM strategies and frameworks for your organization Step 4: KM Business Case Support Why do we need a business case What are the essential components to include in your business case Step 5: New KM roles and responsibilities What are the new KM roles and responsibilities Knowledge architecture Rewards and recognition

133 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Seven Steps to implementing KM in your organization (3) Step 6: Implement KM processes and technologies KM enabling your processes Available KM technologies Step 7: Measure and improve 7 steps for developing measurements Knowledge asset accounting Starting your KM initiative

134 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Literature Tiwana A. The Knowledge Management Toolkit, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, Srikantaiah T.K. and Koenig M.E.D. (Eds.). Knowledge Management for Information Professionals, ASIS Monograph Series, Liebowitz J. (Ed.). Knowledge Management Handbook, CRC Press, Berghoff U.M. and Pareshi R. (Eds.). Information Technology for Knowledge Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998.

135 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Literature Wess G. (Ed.). Multiagent Systems. A Modern Approach to Distributed Artificial Intelligence, The MIT Press, Knapik M. and Johnson J. Developing Intelligent Agents for Distributed Systems, McGraw-Hill, Krogh G.V., Ichijo K., Nonaka I. Enabling Knowledge Creation: How to Unlock the Mystery of Tacit Knowledge and Release the power of Innovation, Oxford Uniersity Press, Wijnhowen F. Managing Dynamic Organisational Memories, Boxwood Press, 1999.

136 Socrates-Erasmus project IC LT-ERASMUS-CDA-2 Module On:- Applied Science of Information Systems MOCURIS – MOdern CURriculum in Information Systems at master level Literature Brooking A. Corporate Memory: Strategies for Knowledge Management, International Thomson Business Press, 1999 Davenport Th. H. and Prusak L. Working Knowledge, Harward Business School Press, Nonaka I. and Takeuchi H. The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanesse Companies Companies Create Dynamics of Innovation, Oxford University Press, 1995.


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