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© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e2 Chapter 9 Group Collaboration
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e3 Our Agenda Encouraging Group Collaboration Characteristics of Group Collaboration Types of Workgroup Applications Office Automation The Virtual Work Environment
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e4 Learning Objectives Explain why group collaboration is difficult in businesses and how workgroup information systems encourage group collaboration. Describe the main characteristics of group collaboration. Explain what groupware is.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e5 Learning Objectives (cont’d.) List and briefly describe the main types of workgroup applications. Summarize the group collaboration characteristics of the main types of workgroup applications. Explain what office automation is.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e6 Learning Objectives (cont’d.) Describe the changes in the work environment that can take place as a result of the use of workgroup applications.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e7 Encouraging Group Collaboration Group Collaboration
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e8 Encouraging Group Collaboration Collaborating with others includes: Discussing ideas Sharing thoughts Coordinating plans Commenting on the work of others
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e9 Encouraging Group Collaboration (cont’d.) Employees need to: Exchange documents Transmit designs Send images Communicate with different people
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e10 Encouraging Group Collaboration (cont’d.) The principal difficulty with group collaboration is that group members often are not in the same place at the same time. A second difficulty is that the composition of a group changes – individuals come into a workgroup, work for a while, then leave.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e11 Characteristics of Group Collaboration Group Collaboration
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e12 Characteristics of Group Collaboration Two basic types of collaboration: 1.Time – work together at the same time, people could be in the same room together or talk by telephone. 2.Place – people may work together at the same place, enabling direct contact, or at different places, in which case they cannot have direct contact without extensive travel.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e13 Characteristics of Group Collaboration (cont’d.) Collaboration tools Voice mail Faxes Overnight deliveries Regular mail Conference calls Meetings
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e14 Characteristics of Group Collaboration (cont’d.) Forms of communication Audio communication – talking to other people either in person or by telephone. Visual communication – sights of people or other real things including facial expressions and body language. Document communication - containing text, numbers, tables, diagrams, graphs, and other written representations.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e15 Types of Workgroup Applications Group Collaboration
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e16 Types of Workgroup Applications Groupware includes Electronic messaging ( ) Information sharing Document conferencing Audioconferencing Videoconferencing Electronic conferencing Electronic meeting support Group calendaring and scheduling Workflow management
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e17 Electronic Messaging ( ) permits document communication between group members at different times from different places. Tone, inflection, facial expression do not come through. software is needed to send and receive . Files may be attached to an .
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e18 Electronic Messaging ( ) (cont’d.) Instant messaging permits real-time messaging. Chat software permits two or more people to have an electronic “conversation” in real-time.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e19 Information Sharing Information sharing is a workgroup application that involves sharing different types of information among members of a group. Information sharing allows audio, visual, and document communication to take place between group members at different times and different places.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e20 Information Sharing (cont’d.) Best known information sharing program is Lotus Notes. With Notes, users can create “document databases” to share information.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e21 Document Conferencing Document conferencing, also called data conferencing, is a workgroup application that provides collaboration on documents. Document conferencing provides document communication between group members at the same time from different places.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e22 Document Conferencing (cont’d.) Whiteboard conferencing allows each user to see the same document on an electronic whiteboard which is a white area on the screen containing the document. Application conferencing allows each user to see the same document on their screen within the application program.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e23 Audioconferencing Audioconferencing is a workgroup application in which two or more members of a group at different locations communicate with each other at the same time by voice over a computer network. Computer telephony uses the Internet to bypass regular telephone lines.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e24 Videoconferencing Videoconferencing is a workgroup application in which members of a group at different locations can see each other at the same time that they talk to each other. Videoconferencing allows audio and visual communications between group members at the same time from different places.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e25 Videoconferencing (cont’d.) Two types of videoconferencing systems: 1.Room or Group systems – designed for several people in a room. Can cost up to $50, Desktop systems – designed for use by an individual. Can be less than $1,000.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e26 Electronic Conferencing Electronic conferencing is combining document conferencing with videoconferencing. Electronic conferencing provides audio, visual, and document communication between group members at the same time from different places.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e27 Electronic Meeting Support Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS) permit using computer systems to facilitate the meeting. The principal advantage of EMS is that all contributions are anonymous. Two types of system: Room systems Desktop systems
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e28 Electronic Meeting Support EMS provides document communication between group members at the same time and the same place for room systems. EMS provides document communication between group members at the same time and a different place for desktop systems.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e29 Group Calendaring and Scheduling Group calendaring and scheduling is a workgroup application that assists workgroup members in coordinating their time. Group calendaring and scheduling allows a specific type of document communication between group members at different times and different places.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e30 Workflow Management Workflow management software coordinates the tasks performed by different individuals in a workgroup and the flow of documents between people. Workflow management allows document communication between group members working at different times and different places.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e31 Office Automation Group Collaboration
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e32 Office Automation Office automation may include individual applications such as word processing, desktop publishing, and presentation graphics. It may also include workgroup applications such as , information sharing, calendaring and scheduling, and workflow management.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e33 Office Automation (cont’d.) Special applications include: Voice processing – voice mail and automated attendant Facsimile Unified messaging – , voice mail, paging and fax are combined into one system Electronic filing – instead of paper document filing Image processing – digitized copies of graphs, charts, photos, and other images Document management
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e34 The Virtual Work Environment Group Collaboration
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e35 The Virtual Work Environment The virtual work environment consists of wherever and whenever people work. Elements include: Telecommuting Virtual offices Virtual meetings Virtual companies
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e36 Telecommuting Telecommuting involves “commuting” over the telephone, or other data communications channel, rather than commuting by car or public transit. Initially, mainly computer professionals such as programmers telecommuted, but now many types of employees work this way.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e37 Telecommuting (cont’d.) Advantages include: Reduced commuting costs for employees Reduced office space cost for employers Increased productivity and decreased absenteeism Disadvantages include: Cost of setting up a “home” office Lack of face-to-face contact with coworkers
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e38 Virtual Offices Virtual offices take telecommuting an additional step. In addition to the employees working from home, there is no headquarters office address. Rather, the headquarters office exists “virtually”.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e39 Virtual Meetings A virtual meeting uses electronic conferencing and meeting systems that permit the participants to take part on their own schedule. Thus, all participants are not meeting at the same time. The meeting may last several days to allow all to participate.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e40 Virtual Companies A virtual company exists in such a way that it does not have a regular place of business. Employees may work from home, from nearby rented space, a hotel room when traveling, or from a customer’s office.
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e41 Group Collaboration Key Terms
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e42 Key Terms Application Conferencing Audio Conferencing Chat Computer Telephony Desktop Videoconferencing System Document (Data) Conferencing Electronic Conferencing Electronic Mail ( ) Electronic Meeting Electronic Meeting System Electronic Messaging Group Calendaring and Scheduling Group (Collaborative) Computing
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e43 Key Terms (cont’d.) Group Decision Support System (GDSS) Groupware Information Sharing Instant Messaging Office Automations Room (Group) Videoconferencing System Teleconferencing Videoconferencing Virtual Company Virtual Meeting Virtual Office Virtual Work Environment Whiteboard Conferencing Workflow Management
© 2001 Business & Information Systems 2/e44 Summary Encouraging Group Collaboration Characteristics of Group Collaboration Types of Workgroup Applications Office Automation The Virtual Work Environment
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Lead Black Slide Powered by DeSiaMore1. 2 Chapter 9 Group Collaboration.
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