Presentation on theme: "Main Idea: A quick victory in the Spanish American War gave the United States a new role as a world power."— Presentation transcript:
Main Idea: A quick victory in the Spanish American War gave the United States a new role as a world power
Bell Ringer Activity: During the 1890’s rival newspaper owners William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer were trying to win readers with sensational stories. In 1897 William Hearst sent Fredrick Remington to Cuba to send back drawings of war scenes from the Cuban Rebellion. After some time in Cuba, Remington sent a telegram to Hearst saying… “Everything is quiet…There will be no war.” Hearst sent a reply “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war.” Historians are unsure whether it is true, but Hearst had a reputation for doing anything for a good story. Americans however were already sympathetic to Cuban Rebels. They may not have needed a push for war
Quick Review Why did William Hearst sent Fredric Remington to Cuba? What would Hearst’s motivation have been for furnishing a war in Cuba?
By the 1890’s Spain had lost all of its colonies in the western Hemisphere except Cuba and Puerto Rico Cuban had tried many times to revolt against Spain Jose Marti was exiled from Cuba and moved to the United States. He continued to push for independence. In a revolt in 1895 he returned to help fight, but was killed. He is a Cuban hero General Wyeler was sent from Spain to supress the revolt. He forced thousands of Cubans into camps 1/3 of these Cubans were killed
Reading Focus Question How did simmering unrest in Cuba lead to rebellion? Cubans were unhappy with Spanish rule There were a series of revolts Jose Marti encourage another major revolt
Americans get War Fever Americans began to believe that the Cuban’s situation was similar to their own. In what way? What is the irony of their sympathy to Cuba versus their approach to Hawaii?
William Randolph Hearst owned the New York Journal, one of the top read magazines of the time
Joseph Hearst owned the New York World, the other top read magazine Pulitzer Prize was endowed by Joseph Pulitzer in 1917. It is a high honor award for the achievements and excellence in American journalism, letters, drama and music. The awards are given every year. Since 1917, Columbia University has awarded these prizes on the recommendation of a Pulitzer Prize Board. Fourteen prizes are given every year in journalism. There are prizes in letters that are for fiction, history, biography or autobiography, poetry and general nonfiction. The other prizes are for music and drama.
Hearst and Pulitzer were competitors Both wrote shocking headlines, inflammatory stories, and used shocking illustrations. This type of writing became known as yellow journalism Both papers used only the Cuban viewpoint to skew peoples views of what was happening What group of journalists does this remind you of from the progressive era? What kind of newspapers or magazines does this remind you of today?
Why did Americans get War Fever? Newspapers created inflammatory accounts of events in Cuba Americans supported Cuba’s rebellions What was Yellow Journalism? Sensationalized reporting designed to attract readers
Hearst felt strongly that the U.S. should intervene He published pictures of the cruelty inflicted on the cubans to put pressure on the U.S. Government to intervene
Initially President William McKinnley was hesitant to become involved in the conflict Hearst purchased a letter from a spy who intercepted it from Spain’s Ambassador, Enrique Dupuy who called the President “weak and catering to the rabble” Americans were outraged. President McKinnley was well-like by the public. They were insisting on war with Spain
Why did the Lome letter create such an outcry? It was critical of President McKinnley
The USS Maine, sitting in Havana Harbor to protect American citizens and property mysteriously exploded killing 260 American Sailors. How do you think Hearst and Pulitzer responded?
McKinnley demanded Spain grant Cuba its indpendence Spain refused On April 25 1898, The Spanish-American War began It was fought in Cuba and the Phillipines It lasted 4 months
Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt sent orders to Commodore Dewey that if war broke out with Spain, he should attack the Philippines As Dewey’s fleet attacked, Spain opened fire. Dewey waited just out of range Americans had the advantage of iron and steel ships and superior weaponry Because of this they faced an easy victory over the wooden Spanish ships Not a single American life was lost, 400 Spanish were injured or killed in the Battle of Manila Bay http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_r-Z1rtw_6s
Filipinos had been fighting for independence from Spain for 2 years All Spanish Forces in the Philippines surrendered on August 14, 1989
Meanwhile in Cuba… The United States already recognized Cuba’s independence from Spain in the Teller Amendment in which it promised to leave the governement and control of the island to its people Soldiers sent to Cuba were not prepared for the hot conditions there. Woolen uniforms, old supplies, bad food Soldiers included a special regime called the rough riders headed by Theodore Roosevelt http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PV9TU2kCqw&fe ature=related (Rough Riders) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PV9TU2kCqw&fe ature=related
Strategy Wanted to capture the port of Santiago and the hills around it, which they achieved after a 4 hour battle. Battle was led by the Buffalo Soldiers, African American Cavalries On July 3 the Us Navy sank the entire Spanish fleet off the coast of Cuba 2 weeks later they surrendered Cuba Soon after Spanish troops in Puerto Rico were defeated
Reading Focus Question What happened in the course of the Spanish- American War? U.S. Navy defeated Spain in the Manila Bay, U.S. defeated Spain on land and in the water in Cuba, Then the U.S. defeated Spain in Puerto Rico. Why was fighting in Cuba so difficult? U.S. Soldiers has old inadequate uniforms and supplies They had bad food
Read between the lines What was so unusual about the troops that fought in the Spanish American War?
Outcomes of the Spanish American War Spain had to give Cuba independence Gave Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States Gave the Philippines to the United States for $20 million United States spent $250 million on the war Lost 2,000 soldiers to yellow fever The United States now had more bases for trade and resupplying the navy
The Philippines Controversy Those who wanted to annex it: Believed it made the U.S. stronger Believed we had a moral duty to educate, uplift, civilize, and Christianize Filipinos Saw the Philippines as a strategic location for military support
Those who opposed it: Believed we were in contrast to our principals of self- government (what we wanted for ourselves and Cuba) Felt the government needed to deal with racism and oppression in the U.S. before trying to “Americanize” other groups Feared more immigrants would negatively affect job security in the United States
Why was Annexation of the Philippines Controversial? Some believed that annexation violated the American Ideal of self governance, we had problems within the U.S. already, while others believed annexation would make the U.S. a stronger country and aid the natives.
In 1899 Congress approved annexation of the Philippines What do you think happened next? In 1946 the United States finally granted full independence to the Philippines