2 Andes Mountains 4,500 miles from Colombia to Chile Many peaks over 20,000’Steep, rocky, poor soilHot and dry during the dayVery cold at night
3 Societies in the Andes Settlements on the Coastal Plain Andes Mountains, climate, environment make travel, farming difficultHarsh deserts lie along Pacific coastHowever, coastal areas with rivers have good soil; are settled BCAround 3000 BC agriculture starts; by BC communities arise
4 The ChavinChavin-first influential culture in South America (mother culture of South America)Arises in highland region of Peru; flourishes from 900 BC to 200 BCNo evidence of political or economic organizationRELIGIOUS civilizationGods-part human and part animal
5 Chavin Named for major ruin, Chavin de Huantar City has pyramids, plazas, and massive earth moundsChavin culture spreads over north and central PeruInfluences other culturesReligious images reflected in stone carvings, pottery and textilesReligious centers featuring pyramids, plazas and giant earthen mounds
6 Would the Chavin culture have been more influential if it had arisen along the Peruvian coast? Yes-Travel would have been easier.No-People made the difficult pilgrimages despite the rugged terrain.
7 Nazca Nazca-culture on dry, southern coast of Peru Flourishes from 200 BC to 600 ADThey build irrigation systems and make beautiful pottery and textiles
8 Nazca Lines—Discovered in 1927 1,000 puzzling designs on land—images of animals, geometric shapes and mythological beings
10 Theories About the Lines 1. Please the gods?2. Lines indicated where surface water entered the plain and marked elevated land between ancient riverbeds?3. A map that marks the course of underground aquifers?4. Straight lines may have led to ceremonial sites?
11 How Have the Lines Lasted Over 1,000 years? One of the driest regions on earthGround is flat and stonyWind rarely carries away the soilMinimal erosion
12 Nazca—Headhunters?In ceramic and textile design, Nazca artisans depict the taking of human heads.
13 Moche Moche-culture that thrives on northern coast of Peru Flourishes from 100 to 700 ADImages on Moche tombs and pottery reveal how they livedGOLD and silver jewelry; musical instruments, woven clothing; doctors, soldiersNeither Moche religion nor fall of culture are understoodNo written language
14 MocheMoche build large irrigation systems to water wide range of cropsCorn, beans, potatoes, squash, peanuts, fish, ducks, guinea pigs, deer, crayfish
16 What can be inferred from the discovery of Nazca shrunken heads and the depiction of soldiers on Moche pottery?Both the Nazca and the Moche had enemies; some of their people were warriors.
17 Identify similarities in the Chavin, Nazca, and Moche cultures. Successfully adapted to a harsh, rugged environmentAll built flourishing civilizations known for their art styles and beautiful crafts.
18 Connections Across Time and Cultures 1. Prospering agricultural villages and surpluses of food helped lead to the rise of civilizations. Give some examples from the rise of civilizations in the AmericasFood supply—population growth—settled communities—skill and social classesConnections Across Time and Cultures
19 Characteristics of Civilizations 2. Advanced Cities:Monte Alban, San Lorenzo, La VentaSpecialized Workers:Urban Design, Craftspeople, Sculptors, Weavers, Musicians, DoctorsRecord Keeping:Calendars; Zapotec writingComplex Institutions:Trade Networks, Ruling Classes, CeremoniesAdvanced Technology:IrrigationCharacteristics of Civilizations
20 3. As the economy becomes more specialized, social classes begin to emerge. Describe the social structure in Olmec culture.Ruling class (priests to nobles), peasant farmers, artisans and traders (middle class)
21 4. As populations grew, religion became more organized 4. As populations grew, religion became more organized. Describe some religious traditions that were followed by some of the earliest American civilizations.Jaguar spirits, nature gods, temples
22 5. Identify other ways in which the rise of civilization in the Americas parallels the rise of ancient civilizations in different parts of the world.Learned to control environment; created solutions to environmental problems; used resources to build thriving communities; applied organized cooperation and leadership to massive building projects