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Medieval Japan: Age of Warrior Rule? Political Systems and Economy, 12 th -15 th c.

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Presentation on theme: "Medieval Japan: Age of Warrior Rule? Political Systems and Economy, 12 th -15 th c."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medieval Japan: Age of Warrior Rule? Political Systems and Economy, 12 th -15 th c.

2 Themes  Hybrid political and cultural world –Multiple centers, or pillars, of power, political and economic  Aristocratic and military  Kyoto and elsewhere (Kamakura)  Weakening, gradual, of central government –Away from an era of aristocratic government –Entering an age of military power, more than military government

3 Looking Ahead: 3 Major Warrior Governments   Kamakura ( ): military power and rule in tandem with Kyoto   Muromachi ( ): military takes over at center, yet reach is limited   Edo ( ): military stands supreme

4 Taira versus Minamoto: Genpei wars, Burning of Sanjo Palace Minamoto: teeth and claws of Fujiwara, with base of power in East Taira: warrior clan with power in West Taira crush Minamoto in 1150s, entrench selves in Kyoto Minamoto rise again, 1180s, under Yoritomo and prevail Takes “shogun” title, 1192 (i-i-ku-ni= いい国 ) Story told in The Tale of the Heiji and Tale of the Heike

5 The first shogun: Minamoto Yoritomo In court robe and cap

6 Hybrid Political and Economic Regimes Kyoto-Based Regime Jitō Shogun Shugo Kamakura-based “bakufu” Sh ō en Noble, shrine or temple Fujiwara or large temple Local strongman Emperor Bureaucrats Provincial Governors Public Private estates

7 Kamakura legal system: adjudicating proprietor claims versus steward

8 Land Steward Residence

9 Collapse of Kamakura bakufu Hōjō family emerges to dominate bakufu, 1200s Genghis Khan emerges to dominate Asia Extent of Mongol control Marco Polo’s route

10 Collapse of Kamakura bakufu: Mongol invasion

11 Why Japan?   Mongols subjugated Korea (Koryo) in 1258   Want to conquer S. Song (China)   Japan is Song ally   Japan seen as land of wealth   Khubilai sends friendly letter, but with veiled threat… BACKGROUND ACTIONS REASONS

12 The Japanese Response   Court - unsure how to respond, willing to be conciliatory, wants to avoid war   Bakufu - more aggressive, unwilling to be conciliatory, will risk war

13 Kublai Kahn invasions

14 Fighting Mongol invaders

15

16 Nichiren Prayers rewarded by “Kamikaze” (divine wind) 神風

17 Ashikaga Takauji Resides in Kyoto, Revenue from commerce, trade Weak control of land in provinces Shugo emerge as local hegemons with warrior bands, the “kokujin”

18 Shift in Hybrid Regimes Sh ō en Noble, shrine or temple Fujiwara or large temple Local strongman Emperor Bureaucrats Provincial Governors Public Private estates Jitō Shogun Shugo Kamakura “bakufu” Jitō Shogun Shugo “daimyo” Muromachi “bakufu”

19 A feudal order? Monarch Lord Knight Cultivator Pope Empero r Shogun Shugo- protector Kokujin: knight

20 Conclusions  Growing importance of military power  Hybrid Kamakura polity; multiple pillars  Weakening military government  Asian context as catalyst  Hybrid Ashikaga polity: Kyoto-based, losing control of countryside


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