2 IntroductionMany responsibilities need to be carried out for a team to be successful. These tasks are divided among the Team Members, Team Leader, Coach, and Team Sponsor.Team Leaders: People who orchestrate team activities, maintain team records, and serve as a communication link with the rest of the organization.Coaches: People with data-analysis and team-building skills who teach and support Team Leaders and Team Members in using selected tools and methods to help facilitate the team's work.Sponsors: Individual managers who identify needed improvements, and review and support the work of teams.In this chapter we will first look at team roles, then review the responsibilities for each role before, during, and after a project. Finally, we'll describe how to review a team's work.Your organization may use different labels for these roles, for example, you may call the team's Coach a quality advisor, a facilitator, or an internal consultant. Or coaching maybe done by a supervisor or the Team Leader. How team roles are structured and what they are called are less important than making sure someone is doing what's necessary for the team's success.
3 REVIEWIDENTIFYQUESTION: People with data-analysis and team-building skills who teach and support Team Leaders and Team Members in using selected tools and methods to help facilitate the team's work.a. Coachesb. Team Leadersc. Membersd. SponsorsChoose the right answer above
6 I. TEAM ROLESTeam Members share their knowledge and experience to carry out the team's work. They consider the team's work a priority, not an intrusion on their real jobs. Effective Team MembersContribute fully to the project, share knowledge and expertise and participate in meetings and discussions. The should not be shy about asking what might seem like dumb questions -each member has a right to clearly understand all aspects of the problem or process under study.Listen to others stay open to their ideas. The success of a team often depends on how well members reach a common understanding of the issues.Assist the Team Leader with managing meetings and with documentation, discussions, etc.Carry out assignments between meetings, interview customers, observe processes, gather and chart data, write and present reports, and so on.Communicate effectively with colleagues. They should be willing and able to bring the work of the team back to their colleagues for input and buy-in. This early buy-in is crucial to the successful implementation of changes to improve the process.Recognize they maybe implementing the changes themselves and not handling them off to another group or individual.Team Members carry out the team's work, sharing their knowledge and experience, listening to others, and completing assignments.Before getting into specific responsibilities, let's first take a brief look at the general roles of all the team players.
7 REVIEWTRUE OR FALSEQUESTION: Team Members carry out the team's work, sharing their knowledge and experience, listening to others, and completing assignments.a. Trueb. Falsec. MaybeChoose the right answer above
10 The team leaderThe Team Leader calls meetings, handles or assigns administrative details, and oversees preparations for reports and presentations. Ultimately, it is the Team Leader's responsibility to create and maintain channels that enable Team Members to do their work. An effective team leader.Focuses on following a data-based method to solve the problem.Serves as the contact point for communication between the team and the rest of organization, including the Sponsor.Develops ways of updating others who might be affected by the team's work. For example, if a team member has trouble finding time to work on an assignment between meetings, the team leader may talk with supervisors or managers to resolve the problem.Meets with the Sponsor periodically between scheduled meetings with the project team.Team Leaders orchestrate team activities, maintain team records, and serve as communication link with the rest of the organization.
11 The team leaderKeeps official team records, including copies of correspondence, records of meetings and presentations, meeting minutes and agendas, and charts, graphs, and other data related to the project.Participates selectively and carefully in discussions so that members don't with hold their ideas, fearing the solution is predetermined.Participates in carrying out the work between meetings, and generally shares in the team's work.Retains authority as a manager or supervisor. The leader can immediately implement changes recommended by the team that are within the bounds of this authority. changes beyond these bounds must be referred to the Sponsor or other appropriate levels of management.Helps the team resolve its problems. The Team Leader often needs to remember that most problems are caused by faulty processes and systems, not by individuals. Team problems are usually not solved by blaming someone, buy by finding and improving the inadequate process. Focus on what, where, when, and how rather than on who.
12 REVIEW Fill in the blank QUESTION: Team Leaders ______, maintain team records, and serve as communication link with the rest of the organization.a. Ignore everythingb. orchestrate team activitiesc. Always busyd. Create problemChoose the right answer above
15 Selecting and Training Coaches and Team Leaders The Ideal Coach or Team Leader has a combination of people, technical, and training skills--talents seldom found together. Some of the skills needed are:People skills. Has interpersonal communication, group process, and meeting skills; knows how to form groups build teams, listen, resolve conflict, and give feedback.Technical skills. Understands basic scientific tools, statistics, and the use of data; can organize and plan a project; understands the technical aspects of the projects; is customer-focused, and can ask good questions.Teaching skills. Can teach others the skills described above.People SkillsTechnical SkillsTeaching SkillsAs you selected people to develop these skills, either as Coaches or Team Leaders, look for people who are inclined toward all three areas. Look among engineers or other technicians for those who demonstrate caring and sensitivity toward people. Look also for those with proven people skills who seem capable of learning the data analysis and scientific skills.
16 THE COACHThe Coach is someone who is experienced in working with individuals and groups, and who knows and can teach others the basic-scientific tools. The Coach will work with the Team Leader and development. It doesn't matter whether this coaching and teaching is done by internal consultants, Team Leaders, managers, or supervisors. It only matters that the support is there to help the team be successful. An effective CoachAttends meetings, but is neither a leader nor a member. In many ways the Coach is an outsider who maintains a neutral position while helping the team function more effectively.Focuses more on the team's process than its product, and is more concerned with how decisions are made than with what decisions are reached.Assists the Team Leader in structuring or breaking down tasks and plans into individual assignments to be completed between meetings.Works with the Team Leader between meetings to plan for upcoming meetings, helping structure discussions and decisions so the team can work more effectively.
17 THE COACHHelps the Team Leader revise plans in response to suggestions from Team Members, or the Sponsor, or to the daily experience of the team.Teaches data collection and analysis techniques, showing the team what conclusions may or may not be drawn from the data.Helps the team graphically present data in ways that make the message clear, particularly to people outside the team.Guides the team's efforts when technical expertise is required. For example, the Coach may assist the team in selecting and using appropriate tools and methods for analyzing processes for improvement.Coaches understand the tools and concepts of improvements, including approaches that help a team have effective, productive meetings. The Coach is there to help facilitate the team's work - coaching Team Members in needed skills and tools - but not to do the team's work for them.
18 THE COACHEncourages the team to seek the causes of problems before identifying solutions, and to avoid making decisions unsupported by data.Works with Team Members and those outside the team who may be gathering and recording data to develop appropriate forms for data collection.Helps the Team Leader use a variety of techniques to encourage reluctant participants; control digressive, difficult, or dominating participants; and resolve conflicts. Knows when and how to employ these interventions and teaches such skills to the Team Leader and Team Members.Helps the Team prepare and, on occasion, rehearse presentations to management.Coaches understand the tools and concepts of improvements, including approaches that help a team have effective, productive meetings. The Coach is there to help facilitate the team's work - coaching Team Members in needed skills and tools - but not to do the team's work for them.
19 REVIEWidentifyQUESTION: They Focuses more on the team's process than its product, and is more concerned with how decisions are made than with what decisions are reached.a. Teachersb. Engineersc. Membersd. CoachesChoose the right answer above
22 THE SPONSORThe Sponsor is often an individual manager who reviews and supports team efforts. An effective SponsorMaintains overall responsibility, authority, and accountability for the effort.Selects and defines the improvement project; begins the charter.Determines the resources.Selects the Coach, Team Leader, and Team Members, and during the course of the team's work, provides context, guidance, direction, and support.In some organizations the role of the Sponsor is limited to overseeing cross-functional project teams. In others it expands to include the daily management of teams within an individual manager's span of control.
23 THE SPONSORReviews progress and "runs interference" for the team when necessary, representing team interests to the rest of the organization.Ensures that stakeholders, especially those outside the Sponsor's area, have appropriate involvement in the project and the project reviews.Ensures that the changes made by the team are monitored, and implements any changes the team is not authorized to make.Feeds data and lessons learned from the project into a system for future improvements. This could include noticing whether organizational policies or practices need to change to support teamwork and improvement.In some organizations the role of the Sponsor is limited to overseeing cross-functional project teams. In others it expands to include the daily management of teams within an individual manager's span of control.
24 THE SPONSORSponsor responsibilities are appropriate for both short-term project teams and ongoing work teams. Challenging ongoing work teams with a series of projects in their work areas is a means of both energizing and focusing them on what is important to the organization.Sometimes large or complex projects maybe chartered, supported, and guided by two or three Sponsors with diverse skills and resources. This group is called a guidance team. Some guidance teams support and review the activities of several teams. One or two members of the guidance team will likely be managers who have established authority and responsibility regarding the problem or making it one member of the guidance team is designated as team's lead Sponsor. The lead Sponsor is then responsible for resolving issues between members of the guidance team and for ensuring clear direction for the team. For the sake of uniformity, we'll refer to this role as "Sponsor" throughout the text.
25 WHO NEEDS A SPONSOR?Improvement initiatives can bubble up from the bottom of an organization or be initiated from the top down. Ongoing work teams that initiate improvement efforts often do so without a Sponsor. However, bubble up initiatives have several risks. Once risk is optimizing a daily work process in a way that causes problems in other parts of the work system. For example, accounting could change the invoices, which inadvertently causes an increase in calls to customer service and a delay in paying bills.Another risk is improving a process that is not aligned with the organization's strategies or goals. For example, a customer service team could work hard to improve handling calls for a product when the organization has decided to discontinue the product.To avoid these risks, bubble-up initiatives often need a manager to fill the role of a Sponsor-ensuring that bottom-up initiatives are aligned with organizational goals, and that they do not inadvertently cause problems in other areas.Sponsors also initiate improvement activities that are necessary to accomplish the organization's objectives. For example, on delivery may need to improve in order to grow market share or increase profits.Ongoing work teams can be asked to undertake a management-initiate improvement effort, or they can initiate an improvement effort themselves. In either case, it is wise to have a Sponsor for the effort to increase the likelihood of success.
26 REVIEWTRUE OR FALSEQUESTION: The Sponsor is often an individual manager who reviews and supports team efforts. An effective Sponsora. Trueb. Falsec. MaybeChoose the right answer above
29 II. RESPONSIBILITIES FOR SUCCESSFUL IMPROVEMENT As the project unfolds, all of the team players must work together during different phases of the team's work. The Roles and Responsibilities for Improvement Projects illustration on the next page outlines this in detail. This section more fully describes some of the key person- responsibilities of each player before, during, and after the project.
30 Roles and Responsibilities for Improvement Projects
31 BEFORE THE PROJECT Sponsor Responsibilities Before the Project Select and define the project. To improve a project's chances for success, select a project that:Is important to the organization and its customers.Is not already undergoing major changes or being studied by another group (unless the project is to study how to make the change.)Is relatively simple, with clearly defined starting and ending points. Even if you would rather target a large or complex system - such as accounting - for most teams it is best to break it down into smaller components.Completes a cycle once a day or so, rather than once a month or once a year. For example, collecting data on process that produces outputs (products, reports, services) many times a day allows you to rapidly see what is actually happening and to quickly figure out whether your solution actually improves things.Use the Project Selection Worksheet on the next page to help you think through your project selection.
32 Project selection worksheet CRITERIARATING12345DON’T KNOWThe process or project is related to a key business issue.VeryNot at allI have or can get customer input on this issue.EasyHardManagement does or would give this project high priority.LikelyUnlikelyI can identify starting and ending points for the process.YESNOCollecting data on this process is relatively easy.The process completes one cycle every day or so (if not more frequently)I can identify what a "defect" is for this process.The problem I need to investigate or improve is stated as a problem, not a solution.The process is within my scope of knowledge/authority.I know how the process owner is and he/she recognizes the need to improve.The Sponsor of this project has the ability to commit time and resources.The process will not be changed by another initiative in the near future.Instructions: Write a problem statement for your project, and then evaluate the statement using the criteria below. For example, if you check several "Dont Know" boxes, gather more information on this project before going forward. If you rate several criteria as "5" or "No", then reconsider the project.This worksheet may be downloaded from the Oriel
33 Localize the ProblemUsing data to pinpoint where and when the problem occurs helps the team focus on the most important component of the problem.Draft a clear charter. Once the problem or improvement opportunity has been selected by the Sponsor, it's time to clearly define the project. The team will use this charter to stay focused, establish work boundaries, and define success. A well-crafted charter helps a team understandWhat the problem isWhy is it important to customers and the organization at this timeAny boundaries or limitations, including time and moneyThe beginning and ending dates of the project, and key milestones for reviewsThe key measures related to the problem or process under studyLocalizing ProblemsOne way to define a problem is to pinpoint when and where the problem occurs. This is called "localizing." You will use your energies best if you localize a problem before plunging deeply into a project.Often the problem observed may only be a symptom of other problems upstream in the process. For example, an error that appears when calling up a computer record could be caused upstream when the information is entered into the computer, or mistakes in a customer's bill may result from mistakes in the original order or any steps in between. Localizing directs the team to the part of the process that really needs improvement.Sometimes it's best for the Sponsor to investigate and narrow the problem before giving it to a team to pursue. In other cases, it is best for the team to start by gathering data to focus their work. What's important is that the Sponsor work closely with the project team to define its work.
34 Localize the Problem (cont’d) The scope of their authority, for example, to call in co-workers or outside experts, request information normally inaccessible to them, and make changes to the processWho the core Team Members are and the amount of time allocated to the projectSelect the Coach. The Coach is someone who is experienced in working with groups, and who knows and can teach others the basic scientific tools.Select the Team Leader. The Team Leader-often a manager or supervisor responsible for the unit where most changes are likely to occur-should be interested in solving problems and reasonably good at working with individuals or groupsLocalizing ProblemsOne way to define a problem is to pinpoint when and where the problem occurs. This is called "localizing." You will use your energies best if you localize a problem before plunging deeply into a project.Often the problem observed may only be a symptom of other problems upstream in the process. For example, an error that appears when calling up a computer record could be caused upstream when the information is entered into the computer, or mistakes in a customer's bill may result from mistakes in the original order or any steps in between. Localizing directs the team to the part of the process that really needs improvement.Sometimes it's best for the Sponsor to investigate and narrow the problem before giving it to a team to pursue. In other cases, it is best for the team to start by gathering data to focus their work. What's important is that the Sponsor work closely with the project team to define its work.
35 CHARTER WORKSHEET Suggested Questions to Consider Notes Purpose What is important to customers about the product, process, or service?What problems do customers have with the product or service?What is wrong or not working? What Problem is the team addressing?ImportanceHow will reducing this problem affectThe customers?The organization?Employees?Why should this project or work be done now?ScopeHow will the team focus its works?What information must be collected to identify urgent problems?What areas are inside and/or outside the work of the team?What are the process boundaries (start abd end points?)What specific parts of the process should be focused on?What are the project or work deadlines? Milestones for review?What business constraints must be taken into account in scheduling the project or work?
36 CHARTER WORKSHEET Suggested Questions to Consider Notes Deliverables What must the team deliver to be successful?How will be know when the project or is done?MeasuresWhat will be the primary measures of success?Who will they be measured and tracked?What is the target for these measures?How much improvement is needed by when? (Provide target date)What defects will be tracked?ResourcesTo whom is the team accountable?Who is the manager or Sponsor?Who are the key stakeholders?Who is on this team?Who will lead the effort (be the Team Leader?)Who can the team turn to for expert guidance and coaching on improvements?Has the process owner been identified?What budget does the team have?Who should approve expenditures?How much can the team spend without seeking additional authority?
37 Localize the Problem (cont’d) Select the Team Members. The Sponsor, Team Leader, and Coach work together to determine what disciples, work units, or expertise should be represented on the team.Keep the team tight. Typically, teams should have no more than five or seven members in addition to the Team Leader and Coach. Ideally, Team Members should represent each area affected by the project and each level of employees affected. Sometimes they represent different stages of the process under study. They can be of various ranks, professions, trades, classifications, shifts, or work areas. (If the project cuts across departmental boundaries, so should team membership.) Choose their peers. For improvement projects, select someone from finance to tap into his or her "whole organization" perspective to help the team make the financial connections.Provide the resources. What budget is needed? Training Equipment? Which is-in house or external specialists will be needed to advise the team? How much the time must be allotted so Team Members will be able to complete the project on time? How will their normal work get done? By whom?When selecting Team Members, consider each individual's personal experience with the process, interest in improvement tools; ability to think analytically; skills in meeting facilitation, conflict management, communication, documentation (writing procedures), data collection, and analysis; and commitment to serving customers. Consider the individual's ability to learn and to work collaboratively, level of initiative, and openness to new ideas. It's important to strive for a good "fit" among Team Members, picking personalities and skills that both complement and challenge one another while still sparking the "chemistry" necessary to work well together. Not everyone who could contribute something worthwhile needs to be on the team. They can be tapped as team consultants or experts as the project unfolds. Similarly, not every level of the organization needs representation. High-level managers on a team may intimidate lower-levels is an effective way to improve communication and leadership skills.
38 REVIEWIDENTIFYQUESTION: A manager or supervisor responsible for the unit where most changes are likely to occur-should be interested in solving problems and reasonably good at working with individuals or groupsa. Coachb. Team Leaderc. Bossd. LawyerChoose the right answer above
41 THE COACH’S WORKCoaches should initiate conversations with the Sponsor and Team Leader before the first team meeting so they can agree on how to work together to best support the team. These initial conversations prevent misunderstandings and conflicts by setting clear expectations up front.Since coaching needs can vary from team to team and from Sponsor to Sponsor be clear aboutThe scope of the work. Are you being asked to help the team on the whole project, or just one piece? Are you supposed to help get the team started, and then just check in once in a while to see if they need further help?Your role in getting the work done. Are you supposed to teach others how to do tasks-such as collect and analyze data-or complete some of those tasks yourself? How will you know when your "contract" has ended?
42 THE COACH’S WORKYour relationships with others. Who is in charge of what? How will you work with the Sponsor? With the Team Leader? With the Team Members? Are you expected to serve as an expert to guide others? As a collaborator to work together to decide what to do? Or as pair of hands to do a piece of the work that others don't have the skills or time for?What is your role in team meetings? In joint review meetings? Who has which responsibilities for the joint review meetings? What topics should you discuss with the Team Leader and Sponsor between reviews? Who Should Structure those meetings?
43 THE COACH’S WORK – before the projects Coach Responsibilities Before the ProjectWork with the Team Leader to identify the team's initial education or training needs and decide how to address them.Work with the Sponsor and Team Leader to pick Team Members.Work with the Sponsor and Team Leader to complete the first draft of the charter.Review the charter with the Team Leader and help draft the initial project plan.
44 THE COACH’S WORK – before the projects Team Leader Responsibilities Before the ProjectReview the charter with the Sponsor to understand the importance and scope of the problem.Draft any remaining elements of the charter for the Sponsor to review.Meet with the Coach to clarify roles and responsibilities.Review the charter with the Coach and draft a project plan for the team to review and adjust.Investigate the history and existing data on the problem.Arrange meeting logistics.Draft initial meeting agenda.Work with the Coach to identify initial education or training needs of the team and decide how to address these needs.
45 THE COACH’S WORK – during the projects Team Sponsor Responsibilities During the ProjectOrient the team. Meet with the team to review the key elements of the team charter, covering such things as purpose, scope, schedule, resources, and limits of authority. The team will especially need to know which decisions they can make and which belong to the Sponsor or others in the organization.Represent team interests to the organization. Since it is important that the team and its work not be isolated from the rest of the organization, the team will need to know how to communicate with others, especially those likely to be affected by their work. Sponsors also "run interference" for the team, when necessary, representing its interests to the rest of the organization. Sometimes the Sponsor must work with Team Member's supervisors to reinforce the importance of both the team's work and the manager's/supervisor's support.Review team progress. Open communication between the project team (Team Leader, Coach, and Team Members) and the Sponsor greatly increases the chances of success. At first, the joint review meetings may be spent ironing out controversial or unclear portions of the charter, which is ordinarily drafted by the Sponsor. After that, most teams find an appropriate rhythm for review meetings-at least every two weeks is a good place to start. Urgent issues may dictate additional meetings
46 THE COACH’S WORK – during the projects Coach Responsibilities During the ProjectMeet with the Team Leader to discuss the team's progress and find ways to improve how the team works.Teach tools/skills to the team during meetings.Get the team "unstuck" during meetings. It is important that Coaches observe first-hand the progress or problem under study so they can understand the challenges facing the team.Meet with the Sponsor, Team Leader, and Team Members for joint review meetings.
47 THE COACH’S WORK – during the projects Team Leader Responsibilities During the ProjectLead the improvement project.Provide Team Members with appropriate teaching and coaching in improvement tools and methods.Develop, update, and execute the project plan.Identify problems and risks as they are uncovered and with the team, develop ways to address them.Plan team meetingsLead meetings until Team Members are comfortable enough to take turns serving as meeting facilitator.Handle meeting logistics and administrative tasks.Regularly meet with the Sponsor and Coach to review progress and ensure the methodology and tools are appropriately applied, and to address any pertinent issues.Meet with the Sponsor, Coach, and Team Members for joint review meetings.Make recommendations for changes when necessary.
48 THE COACH’S WORK – during the projects Team Member Responsibilities During the ProjectParticipate in the team meetings. Team Member help meetings run effectively by taking notes, keeping track of time, and helping to facilitate meetings. A critical aspect of a team's work is to integrate Team Member's combined knowledge, experience, and perspectives into a common understanding of the problem or issue. This requires members to contribute to discussions, clarify or elaborate on ideas, listen to others, and build on each other's ideas.Team Members also need to make good decisions. Disagreements during decision-making are natural and helpful because they increase the range of information that the team can use in its decision-making process. Team Members should seek out differences of opinion and search for ways to either resolve disagreements with data, or find alternatives that incorporate everyone's viewpoint.Help with administrative tasks. For a team to operate efficiently, myriad administrative tasks need to be addressed. Team Members can help reserve meeting rooms and equipment, obtain supplies, send out reminders for action items and tasks, maintain documentation of the team's work, and prepare for presentations.
49 THE COACH’S WORK – during the projects Team Member Responsibilities During the Project (cont’d)Complete assignments between meetings. Successful teamwork requires commitment and dedication from all Team Members. All members should volunteer for task to be completed between meetings. These tasks could include observing processes, gathering and charting data, and writing reports. Completing tasks on time is critical to maintaining momentum and meeting deadlines. If Team Members have trouble completing assignments, they should ask their manager, supervisor, or the Team Leader for help in setting priorities.Communicate progress to colleagues. Team Members should keep colleagues, supervisors, and managers updated on the team's actions and achievements. This helps everyone take the improvement work into account when scheduling other tasks, and creates understanding and openness to the solution that emerges at the end of the improvement initiative.Make recommendations for changes. Team Members will evaluate a number of possible solutions before choosing the best option. If Team Members are involved in implementing the proposed solution, these responsibilities may continue after the improvement initiative is completed. It is important to be clear when project responsibilities end and ongoing work responsibilities begin.Meet with Sponsor, Coach, and Team Leader to join review meetings. The meetings are critical for team success and should be scheduled regularly with the Sponsor.
50 REVIEWTRUE OR FALSEQUESTION: Coaches doesn’t initiate conversations with the Sponsor and Team Leader before the first team meeting so they can agree on how to work together to best support the team. These initial conversations prevent misunderstandings and conflicts by setting clear expectations up front.a. Trueb. Falsec. MaybeChoose the right answer above
53 BALANCING ROLESContinuum of Leadership Shared Between a Team Leader and CoachAmount of Active Leadership by CoachStart of the ProjectAfter a few meetingsEnd of the projectWhen an organization has a Coach available to help the team learn new skills, the Coach and Team Leader may need to spend time agreeing how best to work together with the team. If team problem solving or process improvement is new for both the Team Leader and the team, the Coach may be very active during the team's initial meetings. In this circumstance, the challenge will be for the Coach to remain, as much as possible, the outside consultant to the team. Team members should never feel that the Team Leader and Coach are vying for control over the team. It may even be helpful for the Coach to sit away from the team table in order to better observe the interaction among Team Members.The diagram above illustrates how the proportions of active leadership taken on by the Team Leader and Coach may change throughout a project. The Coach, trained in meeting skills, may run parts of the first team meetings, but the Team Leader gradually assumes more of there duties. Throughout a project, the Team Leader may also choose to share responsibilities from time to time with the Team Members.While it would be most efficient to have a Team Leader who also could coach the team and teach person-the two roles are kept separate if the Team Leader can benefit from the outside, objective view that a Coach offers and, in times of crisis, the Coach is available to step in and temporarily take over more responsibility.Amount of Active Leadership by Team Leader (may be shared by Team Members)
54 JOINT REVIEW MEETINGSJoint review meetings between the Sponsor, Coach, Team Leader, and Team Members are heldTo stay updated on progress made since the last reviewAt the end of each step in the problem-solving or progress-improvement methodology being followedWhenever unexpected problems ariseWhen major revisions in the charter, expected results, or schedule occurWhen solutions are selectedSponsor responsibilities for joint review meetingsBEFOREAFTER
55 JOINT REVIEW MEETINGS (CONT’D) Sponsor responsibilities for joint review meetingsThe joint review meetings help Sponsors fulfill their responsibilities toKeep the project on track and focused by reinforcing prioritiesEncourage the team to use logic, data, and an improvement methodOffer support and demonstrate commitmentHelp the team overcome barriers and roadblocksBEFOREAFTERSponsors should keep the joint review meetings informal, with an emphasis on discussion and questions and answers, rather that formal presentations. Hold these meetings at a regular time and place, and change them only in case of emergency. Team Leaders shouldn't cancel a joint review meeting because there is "nothing to report"-these meetings are intended to keep communication lines open with Sponsors, not to impress them. Coaches often attend reviews so they can assist the team and Sponsor in the follow-up actions.
56 JOINT REVIEW MEETINGS (CONT’D) When Sponsors review improvement projects, they should look forAlignment. How well does the work of the team align with the priorities of the organizations?Methodology. What improvement method is the team using to guide its efforts? Is the team actually following its methodology?Flow of logic. Is it clear how the team reached its conclusions? Does the explanation make sense? Is it supported by data? Do the team's activities flow logically from its charter? Has the charter been modified based on new data? Are there changes in the expected results?Use of data. What assumptions have been made? What data support them? Are measurements clearly defined? Are definitions consistent? Are all the data relevant? Are there enough data to draw these conclusions? If not, what additional data are needed?Many Sponsors review projects by drilling into the schedule (Will it be late?), the resources (You need what?) and the results (Where's the money?)Oriels approach has a very different focus. The schedule, resources and the results are still important, but the way you achieve the results deserves the focus and drill-down because you are reinforcing a rigorous, data-based approach to achieving results.A structured questioning process in the joint review meeting supports and examines how well the improvement method is being applied. The goal of the questions is to uncover key ideas, assumptions, hidden problems, gaps in logic, and risks. Another goal is to leave Team Members feeling supported, challenged, and energized to continue their work. Questions should be thought-provoking, encouraging, courteous, and helpful.
57 JOINT REVIEW MEETING STRUCTURE Before the review:The team Members agree on what to present and who will be responsible for discussing which topics. A storyboard format is recommended for presentationsTeam Leader and Sponsor agree on and prepare agenda.Team Members prepare handouts summarizing their work to date and send them to the Sponsor two to three days before the meeting.Sponsor and Coach read the materials, looking to understand the team's logic and supporting data.
58 JOINT REVIEW MEETING STRUCTURE Part one of the review:Sponsor opens meeting and reviews the agenda.The project team presents highlights of their work using standard presentation templates. (This should take no more than 20 minutes. Sponsor listens an takes notes.)Sponsor asks questions for clarification, notes strengths in team's use of logic and data, and offers suggestions and help to the team.The project team asks questions and responds to Sponsor's questions with more detail and supporting data.The Sponsor closes this part of the meeting and reviews what will happen next.Effective questions for Join Review MeetingsAsk questions that elicit discussion (open questions) rather than questions which can be answered "yes" or "no" (closed questions).What data might confirm your opinion?" Instead of "Didn't you collect data to confirm your opinion?""How could the team resolve the issue of...?" instead of "Shouldn't you conclude...?"Ask questions to understand or explore the other person's thinking rather that to have them guess your answer.Ask non-judgmental questions:"I am confused about the chart. Please help me understand the conclusion you drew from it," rather than "Your chart is misleading. Why did you think that was logical?"
59 JOINT REVIEW MEETING STRUCTURE Part two of the review:The Sponsor and Coach meet and discussWhat were the main messages sent to the project team?What did the Sponsor/Coach wish had been said?How could this review be improved?Team Leader and Team Members meet and discussWhat did we hear as the Sponsor's/Coach main points?How will we address these main points?How could we improve this review?Characteristics of a Good Joint Review MeetingSponsor receives an accurate picture of project work and statusTeam and Sponsor leave with a clear, shared understanding of the path forwardTeam feels respected and supported
60 JOINT REVIEW MEETING STRUCTURE Part three of the review:Sponsor, Coach, and Team Members reconvene to discussThe main messages sent and receivedAny modifications to those messagesThe project team's plans for their next stepHow to improve the next reviewCharacteristics of a Good Joint Review MeetingTeam and Sponsor feel they can be open and candidTeam and Sponsor listen wellTeam and Sponsor feel it is a good use of their timeThe structure of the joint review meeting is useful for the project team and Sponsor. It allows the Sponsor to hear the full logic of the team's work before commenting on it. It provides time to delve into details at points selected by the Sponsor. It provides time to develop into details at points selected by the Sponsor. It allows Team Members to receive clear messages about the logic of their approach and the appropriateness of their data, while receiving guidance on the next steps. Finally, it allows the team, Coach, and Sponsor to check their understanding of what was said before the team departs and continues to work. At the end of each joint review meeting, document the outcomes on a form like the Joint Review Meeting Notes Worksheet on the next page.
61 Join Review Meeting Notes Worksheet Instructions: Notetakers fill out this form at the end of each joint review meeting. These notes can then be used to guide the project team's work, remind the Sponsor of barriers to be addressed, and improve the reviews themselves.Project: ___________________________________________________________Review Date: ________________ Review Number: _______________Brief status of project at this review:Key messages from reviewers at this review:Next steps planned for project at this time:Issues/concerns raised during review and by whom, and when they will be addressed:Suggestions for improving the next review:
62 REVIEW Choose the best answer QUESTION: A meetings that held between the Sponsor, Coach, Team Leader, and Team Members.a. Group Meetingsb. Manager’s Meetingc. CEO’s Meetingd. Joint Review MeetingsChoose the right answer above
65 THE COACH’S WORK – after the projects Sponsor's Responsibilities After the ProjectCelebrate the project's conclusion. Hold a final project review.Communicate the team's results and ensure that any changes made by the team are integrated into daily work methods in the area.Monitor changes made by the team and implement changes the team is not authorized to make.Review information collected during the project about systems issues or barriers encountered and address these barriers for the success of future projects.Team Leader's Responsibilities After the ProjectMake sure the project documentation is complete and available to others in the organization.See that the process owner receives the necessary documentation for ongoing monitoring of the solution.Identify, document, and communicated lessons learned.Who is a Process Owner?A process owner is a manager or supervisor responsible for the functioning of a key work process or sub-process. This person maintains control of key elements, resolves problems at functional interfaces, regularly reviews key process and output measures, and initiates improvement efforts when the process is not capable of meeting its targets or specification.
66 Process ownerAs a project concludes, the responsibility for implementing solutions shifts from the project team to the people who work in the process (who may or may not be Team Members) and to the process owner (the person responsible for ongoing process performance). If the Team Leader is also the process owner for the work process(es) affected by the team's solution, then the Team Leader has ongoing process-owner responsibilities following the project. The process owner's job is toMaintain the project's gainsMonitor the processes and key measures in his or her area of responsibilityThe process owner has ongoing responsibility to monitor the process and maintain the gains.The process owner has ongoing responsibility to monitor the process and maintain the gains.
67 Sample Agenda for Final Project Review Instructions: At the end of the project it is important to capture the lessons learned while they are still fresh. This can occur at a joint review meeting between the project team and Sponsor. The meeting's purpose is to identify and understand what worked and what didn't work, and to apply these lessons to future projects. The outcome of the meeting is a list of recommendations for future efforts.Project Charter:Review purpose of the meeting and agenda.Silently reflect on the following questions:In your area, what went so exceptionally well that you want to repeat it in future projects?In the project as a whole, what went so exceptionally well that you want to repeat it in future projects?In your area, what superb contributions do you want to acknowledge?In the project as a whole, what new "experiments" were tired, and what were the results?In your area, what new "experiments" were tired, and what were the results?In the project as a whole, what new "experiments" were tired and what were the results?In your area, what went wrong and how could this problem have been prevented?In the project as a whole, what went wrong, and how could this problem have been prevented?Share responses to each of the questions in numberWrite main idea on flipcharts. Do not discuss ideas; only ask questions for clarification.Narrow the list from number 3 to a few specific, important things that can be acted upon to improve future efforts. Decide who will do what by when.Evaluate this meeting.
68 REVIEW FILL IN THE BLANK QUESTION: ______ has ongoing responsibility to monitor the process and maintain the gains.a. Ownerb. Project Supervisorc. Business Development Managerd. Process OwnerChoose the right answer above
71 LEADERSHIP TEAM REVIEWS If there are several improvement efforts under way, the leadership team in the organization should meet periodically to tract how the projects are progressing and what the results will be. This reviews allow the leadership team toContinually assess the project mix with regard to organizational prioritiesCheck for synergies across projectsManage the "pipeline" of projectsReinforce a consistent message about the importance of the projects for the organizationGather lessons learned about factors contributing to success and common problems across projects to improve how to improveThe input for leadership reviews is the data gathered across all efforts in order to assess patterns. For example:What percentage of teams provide adequate data to backup claims?Are the data displayed graphically so that the patterns are clear?Are the conclusions drawn warranted by the data analysis?What percentage of teams adequately analyze causes?What percentage of teams report problems getting access to data?What percentage of teams try solutions out on a small scale before going into full implementation?What percentage of improvements "hold the gains" six months after completion of the effort? One year after completion?What percentage of teams have attendance problems at meetings?What is the team membership turnover rate?How often have the lessons learned shared and adopted across the enterprise?
72 ACTION SUMMARYBuild a team of people with specific roles and responsibilitiesSponsors identify projects, and review and support the work of the teamCoaches teach teams how to use specific tools and skills to facilitate the team's work.Team Leaders orchestrate team activities, maintain records, and link the team with the rest of the organization.Team Members share their knowledge, experience, and expertise while working to complete the team charter.Sponsor carry out responsibilities before, during, and after the project, defining resources, selecting the Team Leader and Team Members, orienting the team, guiding and reviewing work, running interference, monitoring and implementing certain changes, supporting systems for future improvements, and celebrating the project's conclusion.Team Leaders must create and maintain channels that enable everyone to do their work. Team Leaders participate as full-fledged Team Members, working hard to restrain their participation in discussions to encourage Team Members to take a more active role. To be effective, Team Leaders must share responsibility and credit. Team Leaders must also give Team Members a chance to try new skills on their own and grow from the experience.Leadership teams periodically review all projects to gather lessons learned so the organization can improve how it improves.
73 Thank you for participation Module 3: TitleDate:Time: