A. Causes of World War I Competition for colonial lands in Africa and elsewhere led to conflict among the major European powers. 1.Imperialism Main Causes of World War I By the early 1900s, powerful nations in Europe had adopted policies of militarism, or aggressively building up armed forces and giving the military more authority over government and foreign policy. 2.Militarism One type of nationalism inspired the great powers of Europe to act in their own interests. 3.Nationalism In a complicated system of alliances, different groups of European nations had pledged to come to one another’s aid in the event of attack. 4. Alliances Chapter 19, Section 1
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary The spark that ignited World War I: Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was visiting Serbia- a territory the Austo- Hungarian empire had just taken over. B. How the War began-the spark
The Crisis cont. “Black Hand” Serbian terrorist Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife. Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.
Convinced that Serbia was behind the Archduke’s assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. Russia, as Serbia’s protector, began mobilization, or the readying of troops for war. France, Russia’s ally, and Germany, Austria-Hungary’s ally, also began mobilization. Germany, located between France and Russia, wanted to conquer France quickly to avoid the need to fight on two fronts. To get to France, German forces had to pass through neutral Belgium; the invasion of Belgium brought Britain into the conflict as well. One week after the war started, all the great powers of Europe had been drawn into it. Germany and Austria-Hungary formed the Central Powers, while Russia, France, Serbia, and Great Britain were called the Triple Entente (Allies).
The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]
Britain’s Reaction to invasion of neutral Belgium 1838- UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium. Did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe. Britain next? UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August 4 1914
D. Stalemate and Modern Warfare Stalemate on the Western Front By September 1914 the German advance on Paris had been stopped. The war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage. Both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage.
The soldiers had very little decent food, and what food they had was often attacked by rats. These rats were the size of small rabbits and badgers because they had fed on the decomposing bodies of dead soldiers.
Many men killed in the trenches were buried almost where they fell. Corpses and food litter attracted rats. One pair of rats can produce 880 offspring in a year and so the trenches were soon swarming with them. One soldier wrote: "The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat a wounded man if he couldn't defend himself." These rats became very bold and would attempt to take food from the pockets of sleeping men. Two or three rats would always be found on a dead body. They usually went for the eyes first and then they burrowed their way right into the corpse.
Modern Warfare Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in World War I. New weapons killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy. The machine gun / hand grenade / artillery / bayonet / poison gas / flame thrower / submarine / airplane /barbed wire /
Weapons of WWI New Technology + old tactics = horrible losses
Poison Gas Chlorine Gas – 1915 Germans first used it Mustard Gas-sulfuric acid gas - yellow rags soaked in water or urinewaterurine Gas Mask
The most lethal of all the poisonous chemicals used during the war, it was almost odorless and took twelve hours to take effect. Yperite was so powerful that only small amounts had to be added to high explosive shells to be effective. Once in the soil, mustard gas remained active for several weeks. The skin of victims of mustard gas blistered, the eyes became very sore and they began to vomit. Mustard gas caused internal and external bleeding and attacked the bronchial tubes, stripping off the mucous membrane. Mustard Gas
Tanks British-first tanks Early tank-Little Willie 1915 French Tank German Tank – lagged behind Allies in tank development
Both sides used bolt action rifles for the infantry
The American Response 1914 -1916 Although some had sympathies for the Central Powers, most Americans supported the Allies. Support for the Allies was partially caused by Germany’s rule by an autocrat, a ruler with unlimited power. In addition, anti-German propaganda, or information intended to sway public opinion, turned many Americans against the Central Powers. To protect American investments overseas (we loaned money to Britain), President W WW Wilson officially proclaimed the United States a neutral country on August 4, 1914. Many Americans supported Wilson’s isolationism, and did not think the war was any of our concern. Some advocated peace, while others supported a policy of “preparedness.” Wilson son the 1916 election b/c “He kept us out of war!” Chapter 19, Section 1
1914-1915 Germans stopped in the West—1915-1916 trench warfare brings stalemate in the West. Russians retreat in the East Both sides use a naval blockade to stop supplies-British surface ships Germans -- submarines A. The course of the war 1914-1916
When the British cut the transatlantic cable, which connected Germany and the United States, only news with a pro-Allied bias was able to reach America. American public opinion was therefore swayed against Germany’s U-boat tactics. Investors in Britain had a vested interest in the Allies winning the war. Many Americans felt the Central Powers (mainly Germany) would destroy democracy and freedom if they won. B.The B.The Germans lost the propaganda war to win the U.S. over to its’ side.
1. The Sinking of the Lusitania One of Germany’s fiercest weapons in WWI was their dreaded U- boats- submarines On May 7,1915, a German U-boat sank the British passenger liner Lusitania, which had been carrying both passengers and weapons for the Allies. Since 128 American passengers had been on board, the sinking of the Lusitania brought the United States closer to involvement in the war. Though the Germans had initially agreed to warn all nations before a u-boat attack, they eventually moved to unrestricted submarine warfare- attacking all ships without warning. The Germans knew this would encourage the US to enter the war against them, but the fact that the Russians had dropped out of the war in 1917 (to deal with the Russian Revolution), led Germany to believe that it could rapidly defeat its remaining enemies before any US troops could reach Europe. That’s what they get for thinking. 2. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
3. The Zimmerman Note During this time, Britain revealed an intercepted telegram to the government of Mexico from Germany’s foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann. In this telegram, known as the Zimmermann note, Germany offered to return American lands to Mexico if Mexico declared war on the United States. Neither Mexico nor President Wilson took the Zimmermann note seriously, but it brought America closer to entering the war.
C. Early 1917 –The pivotal time. The all out sub blockade works for the Krauts!! The Allies are in danger of loosing the war!!! April 1917— To keep the world “safe for democracy,” Wilson asks for and Congress issues a d dd declaration of war against Germany ETC. The U.S. makes a difference- enters the war when it looks as if the Allies will lose—Convoy System of escorting merchant ships across the Atlantic brings supplies to Br. and Fr.
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats Sept. 1916-April 1917 May 1917-Jan 1918
In the final analysis, why did the U.S. go to war vs Germany? Sub blockade by Germans. Anti German propaganda—only one source of news—sent by the British. U.S. sales and loans to Allies –$$$ Billions- we enter the war at Allies darkest hour to save our investment. Wilson favored and admired the British.
Section 3 Americans on the European Front Americans on the European Front
A. Us had to build an army from nothing Building an Army The United States lacked a large and available military force. Congress therefore passed a Selective Service Act in May 1917, drafting many young men into the military. Draftees, volunteers, and National Guardsmen made up what was called the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), led by General John J. Pershing. Halem Hellfighters was an all African American unit that served so admirably it was was given France’s highest medal of honor. Training for War Ideally, the military planned to give new soldiers several months of training. However, the need to send forces to Europe quickly sometimes cut training time short. Chapter 19, Section 3
Convoy system allows supplies to get to Br. and Fr.thru German sub blockade—Germans get no supplies thru Br. Blockade.Convoy system allows supplies to get to Br. and Fr.thru German sub blockade—Germans get no supplies thru Br. Blockade. US troops not yet in Europe but the allies push back Germans in mid to late 1917.US troops not yet in Europe but the allies push back Germans in mid to late 1917. In the spring of 1917, Germany provided safe passage for Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Russian Bolsheviks, from Switzerland to Russia.In the spring of 1917, Germany provided safe passage for Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Russian Bolsheviks, from Switzerland to Russia. November 1917 Communist Revolution in Russia overthrows govt and made peace with Germany.November 1917 Communist Revolution in Russia overthrows govt and made peace with Germany. B. April 1917--Nov. 1917: With U.S. supplies the Fr. and Br. make gains supplies the Fr. and Br. make gains
C. Spring 1918--Germans make one last all out attack Without Russia in the war it meant that the German military could concentrate exclusively on the Western front. ( March – June 1918) Before the arrival of American troops, Germany launched a furious attack that was able to gain ground in France, coming within 50 miles of Paris. AEF begins to arrive in large numbers. General Pershing’s troops (AEF) pushed back the Germans in a series of attacks. Finally, the German army was driven to full retreat in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive begun on September 26, 1918.
D. American Soldiers in Europe By 1918, European nations had begun to run out of men to recruit. Energetic American soldiers, nicknamed doughboys, helped replace the tired fighters of Europe. Amer. soldiers were plugged into the front lines where needed -most often as part of Br. or Fr. units. Pershing and his AEF were finally given a section of the front to control at St. Mihiel.
E. Ending the War- late 1918 In the face of Allied attacks and domestic revolutions, the Central Powers collapsed one by one. Austria-Hungary splintered into smaller nations of ethnic groups, and German soldiers mutinied, feeling that defeat was inevitable. When the Kaiser of Germany fled to Holland, a civilian representative of the new German republic signed an armistice, or cease-fire, in a French railroad car at 5am on November 11, 1918. Chapter 19, Section 3
A. Financing the War--how we paid for it The government raised money for the war in part by selling Liberty Bonds, special war bonds to support the Allied cause. Like all bonds, these could be redeemed later for their original value plus interest. Many patriotic Americans bought liberty bonds, raising more than $20 billion for the war effort. Chapter 19, Section 4
B. Managing the Economy B. Managing the Economy United States entry into the war caused many industries to switch from commercial to military production. Using the slogan, “Food will win the war,” Herbert Hoover, head of the Food Administration. Voluntary meatless-wheatless-heatless days of the week. “Victory gardens” planted. Save Grain-WWI added strength to the prohibition movement --18 th Amendment. Although he had the power to impose price controls, a system of pricing determined by the government, and rationing, or distributing goods to customers in a fixed amount, Hoover preferred to rely on voluntary restraint and increased efficiency. Daylight savings time was created to save on fuel use and increase the number of daylight hours available for work. This involved turning clocks back one hour for the summer, creating one more hour of daylight. Chapter 19, Section 4
Enforcing American Loyalty During World War I Fear of espionage, or spying, was widespread; restrictions on immigration were called for and achieved. Espionage Act The war spurred a general hostility toward Germans, often referred to as Huns in reference to European invaders of the fourth and fifth centuries. German music, literature, language, and cuisine became banned or unpopular. “Hate the Hun” Despite Wilson’s claim that the United States fought for liberty and democracy, freedom of speech was reduced during the war. Sedition, or any speech or action that encourages rebellion, became a crime. Illegal to interfere with the draft, obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds, or make statements considered disloyal to the government or the US military. Socialists like Eugene Debs imprisoned. The Sedition Act C. Enforcing Loyalty Chapter 19, Section 4
D. Changing People’s Lives African Americans and Other Minorities With much of the work force in the military, factory owners and managers who had once discriminated against minorities began actively recruiting them. The flood of African Americans leaving the South to work in northern factories became known as the Great Migration. New Roles for Women The diminished male work force also created new opportunities for women. Many women joined the work force for the first time during the war. Chapter 19, Section 4
A. President Wilson’s Proposals As the war neared an end, President Wilson developed a program for peace around the world known as the Fourteen Points, named for the number of provisions it contained. One of Wilson’s Fourteen Points called for an end to entangling alliances; another involved a reduction of military forces. Another dealt with the right of Austria-Hungary’s ethnic groups to self- determination, or the power to make decisions about their own future. Although both Wilson and the German government assumed that the Fourteen Points would form the basis of peace negotiations, the Allies disagreed. During peace negotiations, Wilson’s Fourteen Points were discarded one by one. Chapter 19, Section 5
B. The Paris Peace Conference Wilson Forced to Compromise Although Wilson claimed that he was not interested in the spoils, or rewards, of war, his Allied colleagues were interested in making the Central Powers pay for war damages. Wilson was forced to compromise on his views, especially concerning self-determination for former German colonies. The League of Nations One of Wilson’s ideas, the formation of a League of Nations, was agreed upon at the Paris Peace Conference. The League of Nations was designed to bring the nations of the world together to ensure peace and security. Republicans in Congress, however, were concerned about Article 10 of the League’s charter, which contained a provision that they claimed might draw the United States into unpopular foreign wars. Chapter 19, Section 5
C. The Versailles Treaty The treaty which was negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference redrew the map of Europe to the Allies’ advantage. Nine new nations were created from territory taken from Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany. Although most borders were drawn with the division of ethnic minorities in mind, the redivisions created new ethnic minorities in several countries. France insisted that Germany be humiliated and financially crippled. The peace treaty required Germany to pay billions of dollars in reparations, or payment for economic injury suffered during the war. Wilson, however, opposed this plan, claiming that these demands would lead to future wars. On June 28, 1919, the peace treaty, which came to be known as the Versailles Treaty, was signed at Versailles, outside of Paris. Chapter 19, Section 5
Foreshadowing WWII The fact that Germans were required to pay reparations (b/c of the Treaty of Versailles) lead to an economic depression, and bitterness among Germans. The resentment felt by the German people ultimately made it possible for a young, charismatic leader to rise to power and plunge Europe back into war. Hello Hitler. Maybe they should’ve listened to Wilson: America, duh.
The Somme American Cemetery, France 116,516 Americans Died